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Lecture 3 : The Iliad, Bks XXII, XXIV Lecturers: Karen Johnson & Brian McDonald Part. 1: Mythological Background and brief summary of Bks I-XXI Part. 2:

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 3 : The Iliad, Bks XXII, XXIV Lecturers: Karen Johnson & Brian McDonald Part. 1: Mythological Background and brief summary of Bks I-XXI Part. 2:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 3 : The Iliad, Bks XXII, XXIV Lecturers: Karen Johnson & Brian McDonald Part. 1: Mythological Background and brief summary of Bks I-XXI Part. 2: Exposition of Bks XXII, XXIV Credits: Karen Johnson author of most material up to and including part of “A Bitter Growth.” Brian McDonald takes responsibility for the rest! Source: Homer's Iliad, cod. F 205 inf. Late 5th-early 6th c. Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana

2 The Seed of Wars A stupid prince A “discordant goddess” A perilous contest A foolish choice Right here! Bad Move Paris! Yep! Here he is in the flesh! A 1000 ships? No Way! The Judgment of Paris, Source : Apollodore, Bibliothèque Paris Censored! Helen

3 The Seeds Sprouting A visit to Menelaos Menelaos’ recruitment campaign A Launching of Ships Homer’s Illiad, Source: Vatican library Helen Menelaus Possible route to Troy, Source:

4 A Bitter Growth Siege of Troy Conflict of Agamemnon and Achilles Hector’s temporary triumphs Patroclus’ overreaching counter-attack The grief and return of Achilles Escape From Troy: Source....

5 Lecture 2 :Part 2 1.Iliad XXII: The Revenge of Achilles and death of Hector 2.Iliad XXIV: A Cathartic Meeting of Two Enemies Source: Achilles...

6 The Iliad, XXII: The Revenge of Achilles and Death of Hector Setting the Scene at the Walls of Troy –Hector “shackled... By his deadly fate” (6) –Achilles “rushing on…like a champion stallion” (27) Hector torn between parents pleas. and the demands of Arete Priam’s pleas –Certain doom for Hector (44-47) –Certain doom for Troy (68- 83) –Tragic fate for parents Walls of Troy, Source: the Legend of Odysseus, Connolly,1986

7 XXII: “Revenge” Continued Arete‘: combined with Fate means “no way out.”... They could not shake the fixed resolve of Hector, No, he waited Achilles, coming on, gigantic in power... but harried still he probed his own brave heart: “No way out, if I slip inside the gates and walls.... I would die of shame to face the men of Troy So now better by far for me to stand up to Achilles, kill him, come home alive or die at his hands in glory out before the walls” ( ; ; 125; ) “Shame….Glory” The two poles of Arete “Fixed Resolve” “No way out.” Hector, Source: img/pic/hector.gif

8 Iliad XXII: “Revenge” Cont. The Breaking of Hector’s “Fixed Resolve” –Human Cracks in his Heroic Code –His fear of shame fails before his fear of Achilles A series of Homeric similes convey the flavor of the chase while they create distance from it. –They highlight its inequality, speed, and power while foreshadowing its outcome –Yet as they take us into the action, they also tend to distance us from it. (A look at lines ) –This paradoxical quality of the simile is something we will look at again when we study The Odyssey. Hector and Achilles, Source: the Legend of Odysseus, Connolly, 1986

9 Illiad XXII: “Revenge” Continued A goddess’s treachery ends the chase Turn-about iss fair play. In a supreme illustration of dramatic irony a fatally deluded Hector is encouraged to face his foe –Dramatic irony: character’s perception contradicts the reader’s knowledge. –Hector thinks he’s saved. We know he’s doomed. The brave but piteous death of Hector –The “oh no” moment arrives: “He called for a heavy lance—but the man was nowhere near him. vanished” (347- 8) –In that moment Hector “shows his stuff”: “Well let me die—/but not without a struggle, not without glory, no” ( ) –His prayer is rejected in an ignominious death: The book ends on a note of jarring contrast –Troy’s grief in two memorable vignettes –Achilles’s savagery as his chariot drags Hector’s corpse away from the grieving city. Achilles drags Hectors body in triumph. Source: (Associated Press of Ancient Troy)

10 Iliad XXIV: A Cathartic Meeting of Two Enemies Book XXIII: The burial rites of Patroclus Book XXIV begins in agitation and ends in peace Achilles unrelenting grief –Anxious and restless nights (XXIV. 1-16) –Venting rage on Hector’s corpse brings no relief (17-21) The Olympian debate –The pity of the gods (though not unanimous) (26-31) –Apollo’s eloquent intervention (38-65) –The decision of Zeus: piety must be rewarded (78-95) Source:“The Spoils of War," by David Ligare (1945-). Achilles and his comrades carry off the dead Patroclus.

11 Iliad XXIV: “Cathartic” Cont. Olympus in action –Thetis summoned by Zeus agrees to “deliver a warning message” to Achilles (95-170) –Iris delivers a comforting message to Priam ( ) –Zeus rewards the pious prayer of Priam ( ) –Hermes gives “safe escort” into the presence of Achilles Zeus and Thetis, Source: grenier2clio.free.fr/ grec/image/thetis-zeus.jpg

12 Iliad XXIV: “Cathartic” Cont. In their encounter they become strange comforters of each other: –Priam’s Dramatic self- abasement –awakens Achilles awe and awakens Achilles grief. The built-up tensions of the poem break in a cathartic flood as “both men gave way to grief” ( ) –Catharsis defined –Catharsis brings climax and the tensions of the epic relax into peace as “the Trojans bury Hector: “breaker of horses” (944) “The majestic king of Troy..../....kneeling down beside Achilles, clasped his knees/ and kissed his hands, those terrible man-killing hands/that had slaughtered Priam’s many sons in battle” ( ) Source: Alexander Ivanov. Priam Asking Achilles to Return Hector's Body Oil on canvas. The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia


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