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Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 0 CBODN Presented by: Barry Johnson and Cliff Kayser April 30, 2010 This book belongs to _____________________ This.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 0 CBODN Presented by: Barry Johnson and Cliff Kayser April 30, 2010 This book belongs to _____________________ This."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 0 CBODN Presented by: Barry Johnson and Cliff Kayser April 30, 2010 This book belongs to _____________________ This material is based on work by Barry Johnson and Polarity Management Associates Tapping The Infinity Factor™ Within Yourself, Your Family, Country, Humanity, Nature, and Spirit

2 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 1 The Infinity Factor The energy system within all interdependency in life. If there is an interdependency, the infinity factor is at play. Most basic interdependence is between 2 elements = interdependent pairs = polarities. “And” is the connecting word between the two elements of an interdependent pair. “Or” is the connecting word when the two elements are independent.

3 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 2 Too much Carbon Dioxide Too little Oxygen Clean out Carbon Dioxide Get Oxygen InhaleExhale and

4 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 3 Negative results from too much focus on activity and no rest Negative results from too much focus on rest and no activity Positives results from focusing on rest Positive results from focusing on activity ActivityRest and Recorder/ Reporter Recorder/ Reporter

5 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 4 Competitive Advantage Can’t Compete and Autonomous Business Units

6 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 5 Key Points 1.Every change effort is part of an infinity loop energy system. The Infinity Factor is at play. 2.Treating a polarity as if it were a problem to solve a) reduces the attainability b) slows down the process by increasing resistance c) even if the resistance is overcome, the goal of the change is inherently unsustainable. 3.If you want to guaranteed the failure of a change effort, tie it to one pole of a polarity 4.To maximize the attainability, speed and sustainability of a change effort, tie it to one or more key polarities because those polarities will be indestructible and unstoppable.

7 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 6 High Performing Organization Leaders who manage polarities well out perform those that don’t Organizations that manage polarities well out perform those that don’t Low Performing Orgnaization and Organization Development Leadership Development

8 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 7 8 Polarities in “The Fundamental State of Leadership” From Building The Bridge As You Walk One It by Robert E. Quinn Spontaneous; Expressive AND Self-disciplined; Responsible Compassionate; Concerned AND Assertive; Bold Mindful; Reflective AND Active; Energetic Principled; Integrated AND Engaged; Involved Realistic; Questioning AND Optimistic; Constructive Grounded; Factual AND Visionary; Hopeful Confident; Secure AND Adaptive; Flexible Independent; Strong AND Humble; Open 12 Leadership Polarities From Polarity Management Associates Conditional Respect AND Unconditional Respect Task AND Relationship Candor AND Diplomacy Responsibility AND Freedom Confidence AND Humility Analysis AND Encouragement Control AND Empowerment Grounded AND Visionary Structure AND Flexibility Logic AND Creativity Individual AND Work Group Planning AND Implementation 10 Polarities in “Level 5 Leadership” From Good To Great by Jim Collins Self AND Organization Willfulness AND Humility Debate AND Unity Candor AND Diplomacy Reality AND Faith Deep Understanding AND Simplicity Discipline AND Entrepreneurship Technology Fads AND Pioneering Evolutionary AND Revolutionary Preserve Core AND Stimulate Change “I believe that the central leadership attribute is the ability to manage polarity.” Peter Koestenbaum 8 Leadership Polarities From Lost in Transition by Richard Elsner and Bridget Farrands To shake things up AND To preserve To be open to events AND To be intentional about results To develop bonds AND To keep distance To seek help to learn about the org. AND To give value by showing how to succeed or avoid failure To impose AND To facilitate To go fast to perform AND To go slow to prepare To clean out AND To develop To support the team AND To serve the hierarchy and/or the wider organization

9 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 8 11 Important Organizational Polarities From Polarity Management Associates Centralized Coordination AND Decentralized Initiatives Recognize the Individual AND Recognize the Team Reduce Cost AND Improve Quality Competing with Others AND Collaborating with Others Stability AND Change Celebrating Our Differences AND Celebrating Our Commonalities Care for My Part of the Organization AND Care for the Whole Organization Showing Respect for Every Person AND Showing Respect Based on Performance Getting the Job Done (task) AND Building Relationships Taking Care of the Organization AND Taking Care of the Customer Work AND Home 10 Strategic Management Polarities From Strategy Synthesis by Bob de Wit and Ron Meyer Logic AND Creativity Deliberateness AND Emergentness Revolution AND Evolution Markets AND Resources Responsiveness AND Synergy Competition AND Collaboration Compliance AND Choice Control AND Chaos Globalization AND Localization Profitability AND Responsibility 7 Organizational Polarities From Managing on the Edge by Richard Tanner Pascale (Left column = the 7 areas of “Excellence” from In Search of Excellence) Strategy ……...Planned AND Opportunistic Structure…..….Elitist AND Pluralistic Systems..……..Mandatory AND Discretionary Style…………..Managerial AND Transformational Staff…………..Collegiality AND Individuality Shared Values…Hard Minds AND Soft Hearts Skills…………..Maximize AND Meta-mize 3 Organizational Polarities From The Three Tensions by Dominic Dodd and Ken Favaro Profitability AND Growth Today AND Tomorrow The Whole AND The Parts 1 Organizational Polarity From Built to Last by Collins and Porras Preserve the Core AND Stimulate Progress 1 Organizational Polarity From Firms of Endearment by Sisodia, Sheth, and Wolfe. Company Interests AND Community Interests

10 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 9 6 Cross-Cultural Polarities From Building Cross-Cultural Competence by Charles Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars Universalism AND Particularism Individualism AND Communitarianism Specificity AND Diffuseness Achieved AND Ascribed Status Inner Direction AND Outer Direction Sequential AND Synchronous 5 Cross-Cultural Polarities From Cultures Consequences by Geert Hofstede High Power Distance AND Low Power Distance High Uncertainty Avoidance AND Low Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism AND Collectivism Masculinity AND Femininity Long Term AND Short Term

11 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 10 Values = positive results of focus on the left pole Values = positive results of focus on the right pole Fears = negative results of over-focus on the left pole to the neglect of the right pole Fears = negative results of over-focus on the right pole to the neglect of the left pole Deeper Fear from lack of balance Greater Purpose Statement (GPS) - why balance this polarity? * ** and Polarity Map™ © 1992, 2008 Polarity Management Associates, LLC / * Thanks to John Scherer, The Scherer Leadership Center / ** Thanks to De Wit & Meyer BV / *** Thanks to Todd Johnson, Rivertown Consultants Polarity Management ® Map Action Steps How will we gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on this left pole? What? Who? By When? Measures? Action Steps How will we gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on this right pole? What? Who? By When? Measures? Early Warnings *** Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of this left pole. Early Warnings Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of this right pole. Information Sharing Information Security Information Advantage Irrelevance and Insecurity Innovation Creativity Agility Attracting Net Generation Workforce Collaboration Effective Decision Making Knowledge Mgmt Synchronization Increased National Security (Awareness) Protected Reduce loss More costly for attacker Increased National Security (Protection) Identity Protection Data integrity Continuity of Operations Integrated Security and Risk Management Vulnerable Identity Theft Loss of competitive advantage Information Overload Data Loss Loss of Public Trust Risk to Mission Completion Lack of data integrity (tainted) Cost to recover (clean-up) Stifles creativity Inflexibility Negative workforce attraction Creating stovepipes Lack of Information Lack of choice/access Increased time to collaborate Increased costs (inefficiencies) Technology restrictions 1. Marketing (understand imperative to share) 2. Training (how/why to share) 3. Integrate security solutions into sharing activities 4. Implement Intel Community Information Security marking (IC ISM) standards 5. Implement good governance and oversight 6. Implement the DoD Net-Centric Data and Services Strategy by mission area and community 7. Implement ABAC 1. Marketing (understanding the value of security) 2. Training (practicing good security hygiene) 3. Providing good security tools 4. Implement good governance and oversight 5. Develop better metrics to measure security vulnerabilities 6. Implement ABAC 1. Loss of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) up 2. Successful Intrusions/Data exfiltrations up 1. Information in newly fielded systems not visible/accessible outside of the enclave 2. Time to get required information up 3. Access to information denied

12 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 11 Higher Purpose = Why Balance This Polarity? Synergistic value – achieve the company vision. Greater value to company Deeper Fear from Lack of Balance? Some of the existing BU’s will not exist Fortune 100 Company - USA * Thanks to John Scherer, Center for Work and the Human Spirit ** Thanks to The Strategy Academy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands *** Thanks to Todd Johnson, Rivertown Consultants * ** Positive results from focusing on this left pole: 1.Reason to believe – further along on the life cycle – operational 2.More clear goals/focus 3.Brings in cash 4.Speed/nimble 5.Easier for employees & customers to be connected (more traditional) 6.High level of control within the BU 7.BU initiative and creativity 8.Products/services better defined 9.Aligning ee interest/skill sets w/BU Positive results from focusing on this Right pole: 1.Synergy/coordination 2.Strategic advantage (distinctive) 3.Greater leverage of capabilities and broader skill set 4.Integrator 5.New revenue streams 6.Insulation of ingredient sales 7.Different customer relations 8.More emphasis on intangibles (IP) 9.Less capital intensive 10.Knowledge generation/sharing Negative results of over-focusing on this left pole to the neglect of the Right pole: 1.Higher costs/duplication of effort 2.Focus is too narrow/siloed/myopic 3.Loss of biz opps 4.Less sustainability of value 5.Lessened ability to integrate techs 6.Less leverage of capabilities 7.Less competitive advantage 8.More intense external competition 9.Less knowledge sharing 10.Less employee networking/career opps Negative results of over-focusing on this Right pole to the neglect of the Left pole: 1.More overhead 2.Bureaucratic and slow 3.Lack of clarity (internally & externally) 4.Lack of focus on ingredient sales 5.Narrower customer base 6.Slower to market/slower dev of new ingredients 7.Loss of cash flow 8.Loss of some specific capabilities or individuals (specialty ingred skills) Action Steps Action steps to gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on the Right pole. 1.Merging common functions and assets (quantifying and creating synergy value) – see budget mtg action list (end of April) 2.Specifically plan projects that grow ingredient sales – Sal by June 1, Target key BU customers and take an integrated/systems approach to unseat the incumbent 4.BUs forwarding project ideas and/or customers for solutions approach for the company (Corp. Steering Team) 5.Within BUs, develop ingredients or derivative systems that achieve company goals (i.e. achieve consumer needs) – Bob and Bruce initial discussion by May 14, Share/assign xxx contacts between BUs and CST, identify ee within BU to lead sales effort with specific customer – Bob to get xxx list compiled by June 15, 2003 – Mary and Sam to assign appropriate sales contact for target customers by May 14, 2003 Action Steps Action steps to gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on this left pole. 1.Higher capital authority level (increase amount for BU) and processing speed – Bob and Dave will make recommendation – May 14, Take a common customer approach with 3-5 selected customers (where we have them between BUs and/or w/company, work together synergistically) – Sam – May 14, Mary & Ed meet to share customers and have a common sales approach 4.Joint sales training (more sophisticated) – have initial design discussions 5.Joint development of ingredient systems (look harder when we go to a customer about other systems we have access to in the company – work together with the company to figure out how we are going to develop ingredient systems) – SEE COMPANY UPSIDE 4 and 5 GREEN FLAGS Early Warnings *** Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of the left pole. 1.We don’t address the duplication of effort (trend line on SG&A as a percentage of gross profit) 2.Platform “the approach” revenue goals are not met 3.Less knowledge sharing (how measure? Call reports?) Early Warnings Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of the Right pole. 1.Meeting audit (measure of value, speed of decision making) 2.BU revenue goals are not met 3.Shrinking BU customer base 4.Engagement survey q’s that relate to lack of clarity and CompanyBU

13 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 12 Competitive Advantage Continuity Core Values Tap Past and Present Wisdom New Energy and Direction Creativity Tap New Wisdom Stagnation Loss of Energy Missed Opportunities Lose Continuity Lose Core Values Foolish Risks Well Managed Polarity Can’t Compete Managing Well and Managing Poorly Competitive Advantage Continuity Core Values Tap Past and Present Wisdom New Energy and Direction Creativity Tap New Wisdom Stagnation Loss of Energy Missed Opportunities Lose Continuity Lose Core Values Foolish Risks Overemphasis on Stability Can’t Compete Competitive Advantage Continuity Core Values Tap Past and Present Wisdom New Energy and Direction Creativity Tap New Wisdom Stagnation Loss of Energy Missed Opportunities Lose Continuity Lose Core Values Foolish Risks Overemphasis on Change Can’t Compete StabilityChange StabilityChangeStabilityChange

14 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 13 New Energy and Direction Creativity Tap New Wisdom Stagnation Loss of Energy Missed Opportunities Competitive Advantage Continuity Core Values Tap Past and Present Wisdom New Energy and Direction Creativity Tap New Wisdom Stagnation Loss of Energy Missed Opportunities Lose Continuity Lose Core Values Foolish Risks Capitalizing on Both Points of View Can’t Compete Managing Well and Managing Poorly Continuity Core Values Tap Past and Present Wisdom Lose Continuity Lose Core Values Foolish Risks Stability Centered Point of View Change Centered Point of View StabilityChange StabilityChangeStabilityChange

15 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 14 Getting Unstuck Lose continuity Lose core values Foolish risk Continuity Core Values Tap past and present wisdom Stagnation Loss of energy Missed opportunities New energy and direction Creativity Tap new wisdom Competitive Advantage Can’t Compete ChangeStability

16 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 15 Anticipating the Learning Curve Lose continuity Lose core values Foolish risk Continuity Core Values Tap past and present wisdom Stagnation Loss of energy Missed opportunities New energy and direction Creativity Tap new wisdom Competitive Advantage Can’t Compete and ChangeStability

17 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 16 Problem Solving Shadow Work Future Search Appreciative Inquiry Past/PresentPresent/Future and

18 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 17 CBODN seeks experienced professionals with proven speaking ability to present at its 2010 Annual Conference in Washington DC. The 2010 Conference Theme is “Leading Transformation in Complex Times.” We seek presentations that build upon the Conference theme and focus on topic areas such as: 1.Changing technology: Ever-changing technology; influence on OD scholarship and practice; social networking; the benefits and challenges of a virtual workforce 2.Environmental stewardship: How can organizations incorporate and honor environmental sustainability goals and achieve business results 3.Leveraging differences in a changing world: Beyond diverse populations, how do OD practitioners help organizations implement and sustain inclusionary practices and strategies 4.Ambiguity is the norm!: Embracing and working with increasing ambiguity and polarities in organizations and in our OD practices 5.Global OD: Introduce new and reinforce traditional skills and competencies OD practitioners need to help transform global, transnational, multinational, and international organizations during complex times 6.Transformational leadership: Discuss leadership styles and competencies needed to help client systems navigate and evolve in complex times 7.Shifts in problem-solving: Introducing and exploring organic, linear, and traditional systemic problem-solving capacities and processes to navigate complex, dynamic environments 8.Case studies examining organizational transformation processes and the mechanisms that measure results

19 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 18 Higher Purpose = Why Balance This Polarity? Deeper Fear from Lack of Balance? Generic Part & Whole Polarity * Thanks to John Scherer, Center for Work and the Human Spirit ** Thanks to The Strategy Academy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands *** Thanks to Todd Johnson, Rivertown Consultants * ** Positive results from focusing on this left pole: Freedom Uniqueness Positive results from focusing on this right pole: Equality Connectedness Negative results of over-focusing on this left pole to the neglect of the right pole: Inequality Isolation Negative results of over-focusing on this right pole to the neglect of the left pole: Loss of Freedom And Uniqueness Early Warnings *** Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of this left pole. 1. Early Warnings Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of this right pole. 1. and Action Steps How will we gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on this right pole? What? Who? By When? Measures? 1. Action Steps How will we gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on this left pole? What? Who? By When? Measures? 1. WholePart

20 System Level Six Spirit Nature And Spirit System Level Five NatureHumanity And Individual System Level Four HumanityCountry And Individual System Level Three CountryOrg. And Individual System Level Two Org.Family And Individual System Level One Family Individual And Individual PartWhole

21 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 20 Polarity Management™ Bibliography References on Polarities as important - In terms of the literature, several books have been written that indicate that those leaders and organizations that manage (polarities/dilemmas/paradox) well outperform those that don't. Below is a short, annotated list of 19 key books. Collins, James C. and Jerry I. Porras. Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies. New York: HarperCollins, Authors identify the "Genius of the 'AND'" as a central variable that distinguished the "Gold" companies from the "Silver" companies. The whole book is based on managing the polarity of “Preserve the Core & Stimulate Progress.” This could also be seen as the generic Stability & Change polarity. Collins, Jim. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap…and Others Don’t. New York: HarperCollins, The “Genius of the ‘And’” continues as an important variable in this book and is identified as a key characteristic of leaders moving companies from Good to Great. There are 10 identifiable polarities seen as central to becoming a level 5 leader. Dodd, Dominic and Ken Favaro. The Three Tensions: Winning the Struggle to Perform Without Compromise. John Wiley and Sons, Authors interview executives from 200 companies and identify 3important tensions (polarities) central to their organization’s effectiveness: Profitability & Growth; Today & Tomorrow; and, The Whole & Its Parts. de Wit, Bob and Ron Meyer. Strategy Synthesis: Resolving Strategy Paradoxes to Create Competitive Advantage. London: Thomson, de Wit and Meyer identify 10 paradoxes (polarities) which are at the heart of strategic management. Elsner, Richard and Bridget Farrands. Lost in Transition: How Business Leaders Can Successfully Take Charge In New Roles, London: Marshall Cavendish Limited, Authors identify 8 tensions (polarities) which, when managed well, contribute significantly to being successful in new jobs. Fletcher, Jerry and Kelle Olwyler. Paradoxical Thinking: How to Profit From Your Contradictions. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, “After more than fifteen years of studying thousands of detailed examples of people performing at their best, Fletcher and Olwyler have found that individuals are always paradoxical when performing optimally and that each person has a particular combination of contradictory and paradoxical (polarity) qualities that work together to produce that person’s best work.” Hammett, Peter, Unbalanced Influence: Recognizing and Resolving the Impact of Myth and Paradox in Executive Performance. Davies-Black Publishing, Ten year of executive research indicates the importance of paradox in executive performance. Hampden-Turner, Charles. Charting the Corporate Mind: Graphic Solutions to Business Conflicts. New York: The Free Press, Charles Hampden-Turner has written several books on the advantage of managing dilemmas in which his research shows that those companies that manage key dilemmas well outperform those that don't. Hampden-Turner, Charles and Alfons Trompenaars. The Seven Cultures of Capitalism: Value Systems for Creating Wealth in the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Sweden, and The Netherlands. New York: Doubleday, Building Cross-Cultural Competence: How to Create Wealth from Conflicting Values. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars identify 6 dilemmas (polarities) which must be managed to support cross-cultural competence.

22 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 21 Polarity Management™ Bibliography Bibliography (continued) Handy, Charles. The Age of Paradox. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, Handy builds on his earlier work, The Age of Unreason, to assert the balancing of paradoxes (polarities) at the heart not just of effective personal and organizational life, but of our survival as a world community. Hickman, Craig R. Mind of a Manager Soul of a Leader. New York: John Wylie & Sons, Support for the benefits of paradoxical thinking also show up in Hickman's book the title of which is a fundamental polarity in leadership. Hofstede, Geert. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. London: Sage Publications, Ltd., Hofstede identifies 5 dimensions (polarities) of national culture to help us tap national differences as a resource. Johnson, Barry, Polarity Management: Identifying and Managing Unsolvable Problems. Amherst: HRD Press, 1992, Johnson shares a number of case examples in which the shift from seeing an issue as a problem to solve to managing it as a polarity added real value for individual leaders and for organizations. Johnston, Charles M. Necessary Wisdom: Meeting the Challenge of a New Cultural Maturity. Seattle: ICD Press, Johnston identifies 5 key polarity domains within culture and asserts the importance of understanding and bridging polarities. Managing polarities are at the heart of wisdom and cultural maturity and how we “must learn to think and act if our future is to be a healthy one.” Pascale, Richard Tanner. Managing on the Edge: How the Smartest Companies Use Conflict to Stay Ahead. New York: Simon & Schuster, Pascale identifies "managing contention better" as the key variable that separated the 14 companies that kept their "excellent" rating from the 29 that did not when looking at the 43 companies identified in the book In Search of Excellence. What he means by "managing contention" is managing polarities/dilemmas/paradoxes and he identifies 7 giving examples of each. Quinn, Robert E. Beyond Rational Management: Mastering the Paradoxes and Competing Demands of High Performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Quinn asserts that mastering paradox (polarity) is the central to high performance. Quinn, Robert E. Building The Bridge As You Walk On It: A Guide for Leading Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Quinn identifies 8 polarities as “The fundamental state of leadership.” Sisodia, Raj, Jag Sheth, and David B. Wolfe. Firms of Endearment: How World Class Companies Profit from Passion And Purpose. Wharton School Publishing, The authors discovered that the key indicator for whether a company is a great investment is the degree to which it manages the polarity of taking care of the stockholders & the stakeholders. In other words attending to company interests & the interests of the larger community in which the company exists..

23 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 22 Competitive Advantage Silos – isolation of the units Excess competition Inequality between the units Redundancies Can’t Compete Problem 1 2 Solution Integrated Business Units Autonomous Business Units Integration of business units Collaboration and mutual support Equality and mutuality Efficiencies of coordination 3 Strategy Bureaucracy and red tape Slow and unresponsive Excess conformity and lack of innovation Lack of unit recognition Fears Gap VALUES Entrepreneurial Initiative Speed and responsiveness Business unit freedom and innovation Business unit recognition

24 Copyright © PMA 2002 Polarity Map ™ 23 Values = positive results of focus on the left pole Values = positive results of focus on the right pole Fears = negative results of over-focus on the left pole to the neglect of the right pole Fears = negative results of over-focus on the right pole to the neglect of the left pole Deeper Fear from lack of balance Greater Purpose Statement (GPS) - why balance this polarity? * ** and Polarity Map™ © 1992, 2008 Polarity Management Associates, LLC / * Thanks to John Scherer, The Scherer Leadership Center / ** Thanks to De Wit & Meyer BV / *** Thanks to Todd Johnson, Rivertown Consultants Polarity Management ® Map Action Steps How will we gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on this left pole? What? Who? By When? Measures? Action Steps How will we gain or maintain the positive results from focusing on this right pole? What? Who? By When? Measures? Early Warnings *** Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of this left pole. Early Warnings Measurable indicators (things you can count) that will let you know that you are getting into the downside of this right pole.


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