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Analogy Figurative and Argumentative. General Characteristics Analogy compares items via certain key similarities in order to: Analogy compares items.

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Presentation on theme: "Analogy Figurative and Argumentative. General Characteristics Analogy compares items via certain key similarities in order to: Analogy compares items."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analogy Figurative and Argumentative

2 General Characteristics Analogy compares items via certain key similarities in order to: Analogy compares items via certain key similarities in order to: a. Make something more understandable and: a. Make something more understandable and: b. As part of the premises to argue for a conclusion. b. As part of the premises to argue for a conclusion.

3 Everyday Example I am going to buy a new pair of shoes or choose a class for next quarter. Focus on similarities. I am going to buy a new pair of shoes or choose a class for next quarter. Focus on similarities. This pair of shoes is of the same make, composition, and style as the old pair and the old pair was comfortable and lasted a long time and thus this new pair ought to also be comfortable and last. This pair of shoes is of the same make, composition, and style as the old pair and the old pair was comfortable and lasted a long time and thus this new pair ought to also be comfortable and last.

4 Another Example I have taken three Psychology classes with Dr. Pigeon and they were all enjoyable and good and thus this new Psychology class taught by Dr. Pigeon ought also to be enjoyable and good. I have taken three Psychology classes with Dr. Pigeon and they were all enjoyable and good and thus this new Psychology class taught by Dr. Pigeon ought also to be enjoyable and good.

5 Evaluation or Criticism Ask for relevant differences and how they affect the conclusion. Ask for relevant differences and how they affect the conclusion. E.g. The new pair of shoes is made of an artificial material rather than leather. The stitching in the new shoes is much looser rather than tight. E.g. The new pair of shoes is made of an artificial material rather than leather. The stitching in the new shoes is much looser rather than tight.

6 Criticism and Questions The new psychology class is about behavior modification in rats while the other classes were about human psychology. The new psychology class is about behavior modification in rats while the other classes were about human psychology. The new class meets at 8 a.m. while the others were afternoon classes. The new class meets at 8 a.m. while the others were afternoon classes.

7 Argumentative Analogy Two types of analogical argument Two types of analogical argument 1. Inductive analogical argument 1. Inductive analogical argument 2.Deductive analogical argument 2.Deductive analogical argument Thus, there are two ways to evaluate or critcize analogical arguments. Thus, there are two ways to evaluate or critcize analogical arguments.

8 Inductive Analogy An inductive analogy draws a comparison between cases and then suggests that since the analogy holds in some respects, it is likely to hold in other respects.- only probable An inductive analogy draws a comparison between cases and then suggests that since the analogy holds in some respects, it is likely to hold in other respects.- only probable

9 Key Evaluative Questions What is the intended analogy? What is the intended analogy? What are the relevant similarities? What are the relevant similarities? What are the relevant differences? What are the relevant differences? Do these relevant differences weaken the conclusion? Do these relevant differences weaken the conclusion? Relevancy= impact on the conclusion. Relevancy= impact on the conclusion.

10 Characteristics- Induction New evidence makes a difference- can strengthen or weaken the conclusion. New evidence makes a difference- can strengthen or weaken the conclusion. I get bored by foreign movies, so I will get bored by this one.- suppose the new one does not have subtitles and has an American star? I get bored by foreign movies, so I will get bored by this one.- suppose the new one does not have subtitles and has an American star?

11 Examples That the world was created by the chance coming together of atoms is as likely as producing a excellent essay by allowing the letters of the alphabet to come together on their own. That the world was created by the chance coming together of atoms is as likely as producing a excellent essay by allowing the letters of the alphabet to come together on their own.

12 Another Example Just as the colonies of America were united by a Constitution into the United States so it is likely that we can unite the countries of Eastern Europe by a constitution. Just as the colonies of America were united by a Constitution into the United States so it is likely that we can unite the countries of Eastern Europe by a constitution.

13 Deductive Analogical Argument Deductive analogical arguments do not depend on additional evidence. Deductive analogical arguments do not depend on additional evidence. They use an analogy to point to a principle that it is assumed we all accept and then claims that in order to be consistent you must accept an analogous case that also fits under the principle. They use an analogy to point to a principle that it is assumed we all accept and then claims that in order to be consistent you must accept an analogous case that also fits under the principle.

14 Criticizing Deductive Focus on the Principle expressed in the analogy Focus on the Principle expressed in the analogy Question- Is the principle relevant to the cases cited in the argument? Question- Is the principle relevant to the cases cited in the argument?

15 A Deductive Example We should not require people to wear seatbelts when they drive or ride in their cars. After all, if you choose not to wear your seatbelt, that is certainly hazardous to your health and it may be foolish, but it doesn’t harm anyone but yourself. Requiring adults to wear seatbelts is like requiring people to exercise regularly. Like not wearing your seatbelt, it may be foolish not to exercise, but it doesn’t harm anyone except you. Since, we think requiring people to get regular exercise would be wrong, we ought to also conclude that requiring people to wear seatbelts is wrong. We should not require people to wear seatbelts when they drive or ride in their cars. After all, if you choose not to wear your seatbelt, that is certainly hazardous to your health and it may be foolish, but it doesn’t harm anyone but yourself. Requiring adults to wear seatbelts is like requiring people to exercise regularly. Like not wearing your seatbelt, it may be foolish not to exercise, but it doesn’t harm anyone except you. Since, we think requiring people to get regular exercise would be wrong, we ought to also conclude that requiring people to wear seatbelts is wrong.

16 How do we criticize? What is the principle?= It is right to require people to do special things as a condition of use of public facilities. What is the principle?= It is right to require people to do special things as a condition of use of public facilities. Do the compared cases fit under this principle? Do the compared cases fit under this principle?

17 Continual Criticism Seatbelt use is required as a special condition for use of public facilities—requiring exercise is not. The exercise case does not fit- weak analogy. Seatbelt use is required as a special condition for use of public facilities—requiring exercise is not. The exercise case does not fit- weak analogy.

18 Possible Response Could not accept this principle and restate a different principle, e.g., We should not accept paternalistic restrictions on behavior. Could not accept this principle and restate a different principle, e.g., We should not accept paternalistic restrictions on behavior. Could say-should require both- promote safety and health. Could say-should require both- promote safety and health.

19 Figurative Analogy Analogy is used to explain and make something more understandable. Analogy is used to explain and make something more understandable. “Trying to find the cause of cancer is like trying to find a feather in a haystack while the wind is blowing: each time you think you have found it, the whole darn stack shifts its composition and you are back to picking up the straws little by little.” “Trying to find the cause of cancer is like trying to find a feather in a haystack while the wind is blowing: each time you think you have found it, the whole darn stack shifts its composition and you are back to picking up the straws little by little.”

20 Figurative Analogy In a solid, the molecules can be pictured as a crowd of men all doing physical exercises- the “daily dozen”- without moving from the spot where they stand….In a liquid the molecules can be pictured as a swarm of men gathered together in a hall at a crowded reception; they are tightly wedged, but each works his way through the others, with many a push and apology. In a solid, the molecules can be pictured as a crowd of men all doing physical exercises- the “daily dozen”- without moving from the spot where they stand….In a liquid the molecules can be pictured as a swarm of men gathered together in a hall at a crowded reception; they are tightly wedged, but each works his way through the others, with many a push and apology.

21 Analogical Literalism This fallacy occurs when you treat the analogy too literally and then dismiss the argument or analogy on that ground. This fallacy occurs when you treat the analogy too literally and then dismiss the argument or analogy on that ground. Thus, one might try to dismiss the Thompson argument about abortion because a fetus is nothing like a violinist. Thus, one might try to dismiss the Thompson argument about abortion because a fetus is nothing like a violinist.

22 Thompson analogy What is the conclusion? A woman who is pregnant because of a rape has a right to terminate. What is the conclusion? A woman who is pregnant because of a rape has a right to terminate. Comparison- woman supporting a fetus that is a result of a rape and an individual who is supporting the life of a violinist as a result of a kidnap. Comparison- woman supporting a fetus that is a result of a rape and an individual who is supporting the life of a violinist as a result of a kidnap.

23 Thompson-continued Similarities: (1) Both forced into the situation of supporting the life of another. (2) Only way to escape is allowing other person to die. Similarities: (1) Both forced into the situation of supporting the life of another. (2) Only way to escape is allowing other person to die. Principle: No one has the obligation to sustain the life of another when one has done nothing to take on that obligation. Principle: No one has the obligation to sustain the life of another when one has done nothing to take on that obligation.

24 Counter to Thompson Remote cabin in the woods example- p Obligation to save the life of the kidnap victim though did nothing to take on the obligation. (Obligation- innocent victims of war, floods. etc. Remote cabin in the woods example- p Obligation to save the life of the kidnap victim though did nothing to take on the obligation. (Obligation- innocent victims of war, floods. etc. New principle: One has not special obligation to allow his/her body to be used for another’s benefit. (-violinist again- organ donation, etc. New principle: One has not special obligation to allow his/her body to be used for another’s benefit. (-violinist again- organ donation, etc.


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