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Reading the Selection 6 Contents Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Reading the Selection Concord Hymn from Nature from Self-Reliance.

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Presentation on theme: "Reading the Selection 6 Contents Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Reading the Selection Concord Hymn from Nature from Self-Reliance."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Reading the Selection 6 Contents Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Reading the Selection Concord Hymn from Nature from Self-Reliance

3 Before 6-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To gain insight into the ideas of Transcendentalism by reading a poem and two essays by Emerson  To identify and understand metonymy and figurative language  To write an analytical essay on Emerson’s ideas about human nature

4 Before 6-2 Ralph Waldo Emerson was born in 1803 and died in Click the Speaker button to hear more about Ralph Waldo Emerson.

5 The Time and Place On July 4, 1837, a monument was unveiled in Concord, Massachusetts. There, in 1775, the American Minutemen had fought against the British in one of the first battles of the Revolutionary War. At the request of the Monument Committee, Emerson wrote the words to “Concord Hymn,” which was sung at the memorial ceremony. Before 6-3a BACKGROUND Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

6 Literary Influences Emerson was involved in the nineteenth-century philosophical and literary movement known as Transcendentalism, which stemmed from the Romantic movement in art, literature, and music. Transcendentalists believed in the unity of all creation and that human nature contained something that transcended, or went beyond, ordinary experience. Before 6-3b BACKGROUND (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

7 Before 6-4a VOCABULARY PREVIEW Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. perpetual: (adj) lasting forever; eternal; p. 242  integrate: (v) to bring all parts together into a whole; p. 242  decorum: (n) conformity to the approved standards of good taste; p. 243  perennial: (adj) continuing year after year; enduring; p. 243  blithe: (adj) lighthearted and carefree; cheerful; p. 243  occult: (adj) beyond human understanding; mysterious; p. 243

8 Before 6-4b VOCABULARY PREVIEW (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. admonition: (n) a warning; cautionary advice; p. 245  latent: (adj) present but not evident; hidden; p. 245  sage: (n) a person of profound wisdom and judgment; p. 245  manifest: (adj) apparent to the eye or the mind; evident; obvious; p. 246  benefactor: (n) one who gives help or financial aid; p. 246  integrity: (n) moral uprightness; honesty; p. 247

9 Before 6-5 FOCUS ACTIVITY Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Freewrite Take a few minutes to freewrite about the benefits of remembering the details of important events both in your own history and in the nation’s history.  What can you learn from history–the history of your own life, of your community, and of your country? How does history help you deal with the present and the future?  Setting a Purpose Read to learn how one writer helps others remember an historic event of great importance.

10 Reading 6-A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Navigation Toolbar A BA B A Active Reading Connect How was the shot referred to in line 4 “heard round the world”? Other European powers besides England, notably France, feared similar external and internal upheavals. The American Revolution had global implications.

11 Reading 6-B Literary Elements B Figurative Language: Apostrophe The direct address of an object or abstraction is a formal literary device called an apostrophe. Does it seem appropriate in this poem?

12 Do you agree? Reading 6-A2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Navigation Toolbar A B CA B C A Active Reading Question Read the first paragraph of the story. What does Emerson mean by his first sentence? According to Emerson, true solitude is a transcendent state achieved through being in nature.

13 Critical Thinking Reading 6-B2 B Elaborating Read the paragraph beginning on page 242 and continuing on page 243. Think about sentence 4. How does it foreshadow the paragraph development? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Emerson speaks of seeing nature with the eye and the heart of a child, a theme developed throughout the paragraph in such language as “a man casts off his years … and … is always a child.”

14 Active Reading Reading 6-C2 C Question Is it possible to be “glad to the brink of fear?” Possible answer: Sometimes one can be so happy that it is frightening–either because one fears to lose the happiness or because the feeling is new and frightening. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

15 Reading 6-A3 Navigation Toolbar A B C DA B C D A Active Reading Connect Before you begin reading, define “self-reliance.” Do you consider yourself self-reliant? What qualities does someone who is self-reliant possess?

16 Active Reading Reading 6-B3 B Question Why does Emerson believe it is shameful to take “our own opinion from another?” Doing so prevents self-reliance. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

17 Reading 6-C3 Author’s Craft C Parallel Structure A celebrated Unitarian minister, Emerson uses a rhetorical device common to sermons and formal writing: parallel structure. Identify the parallel elements in the first sentence of the first full paragraph on page 246. The series of “that” clauses exemplify parallelism. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Find further examples of parallelism. Another example is the compound -ing verbs in the first paragraph of the second column on page 246.

18 Reading 6-D3 Critical Thinking D Logical Reasoning How has Emerson prepared the reader for the statement “Trust thyself” on page 246? After urging readers to think for themselves, Emerson says that they can do so if they are brave enough. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

19 Personal Response Analyzing Literature Literary Elements Personal Response Analyzing Literature Personal Response Analyzing Literature Literary Elements Literature & Writing Skill Minilessons Responding 6 Contents Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Responding to Literature

20 Personal Response 6 PERSONAL RESPONSE What were your reactions to “Concord Hymn”? Note them in your journal.

21 What did the farmers do at the bridge in Concord? What does the speaker imply about the impact of their activities? Analyzing 6-1 They fired the first shots of the American Revolution, which had worldwide impact. RECALL AND INTERPRET Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

22 Analyzing 6-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The participants are dead; the bridge has been washed out. RECALL AND INTERPRET Where are the battle’s participants now? What has happened to the bridge?

23 What are people doing on the day the poem is sung? According to the speaker, what purpose will be served by what they are doing? Analyzing 6-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. They are erecting a memorial to remind posterity of what their forefathers did. RECALL AND INTERPRET

24 Analyzing 6-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. He asks the Spirit to bid time and nature to spare the memorial from erosion so that it will last. RECALL AND INTERPRET What does the speaker ask in the last stanza? In your opinion, why does he ask this?

25 A hymn is a song of praise or thanksgiving. What do you think Emerson is praising or being thankful for in this poem? Cite details from the poem to support your response. Analyzing 6-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. He praises the spirit and actions of our ancestors, which have left a legacy of freedom to us. RECALL AND INTERPRET

26 Analyzing 6-6 EVALUATE AND CONNECT Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Look at the words Emerson used, the way he arranged them, and the poem’s rhythm pattern. Based on these factors, how would you describe the mood created in the poem? In your opinion, does the mood fit the message of the poem? Why or why not? The first two stanzas’ hard end rhymes fit the content of battle and its aftermath and establish a triumphant mood. The softer end rhymes of the final stanzas suggest gratitude. Emerson uses rhythm and assonance to accentuate important words. The strong rhythm is both militant and hymnlike.

27 Analyzing 6-7 EVALUATE AND CONNECT What do you think are the advantages of memorializing an important person or historic event in a song or poem? What contemporary songs do you know that pay tribute to people or significant events?

28 Analyzing 6-8 EVALUATE AND CONNECT Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Emerson wrote about an important event in U.S. history. What historic event would you choose to commemorate? Explain your choice. Significant events might include a major battle, the Civil Rights movement, or the fight for woman suffrage.

29 Literary Elements 6-1 Emerson often uses a type of figurative language called metonymy.  LITERARY ELEMENTS Metonymy is the use of one word to stand for a related term. When Emerson writes that the sun shines into a child’s heart, he uses heart to stand for deep emotions.  In “Concord Hymn,” he uses metonymy when he refers to “the shot heard round the world.” He is actually referring to the entire battle, not just one bullet. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

30 Literary Elements 6-2 LITERARY ELEMENTS Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. In “Concord Hymn,” when Emerson writes that “like our sires our sons are gone,” what does he mean? How else could he have said this? “Sires” are ancestors, and “sons” are descendants. He could have said “When we are dead.”

31 Literary Elements 6-3 LITERARY ELEMENTS Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What does Emerson mean by the word “children” in the last stanza? Do you think the meaning would change if a freeman had no children? Why or why not? He means people born long after this event. It figuratively means posterity, not actual children.

32 Personal Response 6-2 PERSONAL RESPONSE Which of Emerson’s ideas most impressed you? Explain.

33 According to Emerson, why should people look at the stars if they wish to be alone? How would people respond if the stars appeared only once in a thousand years? What does this suggest about Emerson’s view of human nature? Analyzing The stars’ rays “separate” them from the tangible world. People might think that the sublime is always transient and rare. Emerson emphasizes the permanence of human nature and how we take it for granted. RECALL AND INTERPRET Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

34 In Emerson’s view, how do adults and children differ in the way they view nature? What does Emerson suggest accounts for this difference? Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Adults see with the eye, children with both eye and heart; children’s “inward and outward senses” are still working in conjunction. RECALL AND INTERPRET

35 How do changing seasons affect lovers of nature? Why might Emerson have felt exhilarated by crossing a park on a snowy evening? Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The changes provide nature lovers with new delights and moods. Emerson takes delight in all the different moods of nature. RECALL AND INTERPRET

36 What scenes in nature does Emerson describe? What effect does being in nature have on Emerson? What conclusions does he draw from this? Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Emerson describes looking at stars, reveling in a horizon, walking in winter snow in town, and recapturing youth in fields and wooded wilderness. In nature he feels young and alive. Nature can make one “part or parcel of God.” RECALL AND INTERPRET

37 In your opinion, what does Emerson mean when he states, “Nature always wears the colors of the spirit”? Do you agree with him? Explain. Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Possible answer: Emerson means that moods affect the way that people perceive nature. RECALL AND INTERPRET

38 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Do you consider yourself to be one of the people who can truly see nature as Emerson describes? Explain your answer.

39 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What, do you think, is the difference between the meaning Emerson finds in nature and the meaning a scientist finds? Emerson might say that scientists have lost the “spirit of infancy” and see only with their heads.

40 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How do you think people today can connect with nature in a meaningful way, even if they live in a city? What benefits might they receive? Possible answer: City dwellers may find little natural vistas within the city or take trips into the countryside. Such natural moments might relieve the stress of modern city life.

41 Personal Response 6-3 PERSONAL RESPONSE Do you agree with Emerson’s views about the value of nonconformity? Share your opinions with your class.

42 Analyzing Genius is believing that what is true for you is “true for all.” RECALL Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the next question. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. INTERPRET According to Emerson, what is genius? The benefits are independence and self- satisfaction. In Emerson’s view, what are the benefits of genius?

43 Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. People must trust their instincts. RECALL Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the next question. INTERPRET What is the lesson Emerson would have people learn from great works of art? He values the iconoclast who dares to challenge orthodoxy. What do you think Emerson’s references to art say about his values and his view of human thought?

44 Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. People should approach work with willingness, confidence, and the determination to do their best. RECALL Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the next question. INTERPRET In what way, according to Emerson, should a person approach his or her work? Possible answer: Emerson is not specific, but he is discussing intellectual and spiritual activity and the way one leads one’s life. What kind of “work” do you think Emerson is describing? Explain.

45 Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Society is in a conspiracy that demands conformity. Emerson urges nonconformity. RECALL Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the next question. INTERPRET How does Emerson describe society? What approach to society does Emerson say a person must strive for? Requiring conformity, society establishes norms of thought and behavior and penalizes those diverging from them. How does society affect what people value?

46 Analyzing Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. His main concern is what he alone must do. Great men maintain the independence of solitude, especially in a crowd. RECALL Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the next question. INTERPRET What does Emerson say is his main concern? According to Emerson, who is a great man? To maintain integrity, people must find the confidence to depart from norms. Emerson says people become great by acting according to their consciences. How do you think a person can become “great” according to Emerson’s view? Give examples.

47 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Theme Connections In your opinion, how might people react if Emerson’s essay were published today? What insights might they gain from reading the essay? Possible answers: Today’s society demands less conformity; therefore, Emerson’s essay would be well received. Conformity still exists. One insight is that today’s nonconformity is more style than substance.

48 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Under what circumstances might conformity be wise? When might it be foolish? In legal or professional situations, conformity to health and safety standards could be considered important.

49 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Describe how people today might show self-reliance. What roles might self-reliant people play in society today?

50 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What parts of Emerson’s essay do you find most persuasive? What techniques does Emerson use to make these parts effective? Possible answer: Emerson uses a variety of techniques: among them figurative language, examples, and aphorisms.

51 Analyzing EVALUATE AND CONNECT Do you think it’s possible for people to live in society the way Emerson recommends? Why or why not?

52 Literary Elements Figurative language is language that conveys ideas beyond what the words literally mean.  LITERARY ELEMENTS For example, Emerson says that a person “should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within.” The gleam of light that Emerson writes about refers to a person’s ideas.  Emerson uses figurative language to help us understand an abstract thought.  Figurative language can also make commonplace ideas fresh and vivid. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

53 Literary Elements LITERARY ELEMENTS Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. When Emerson writes, “no kernel of nourishing corn can come to him but through his toil bestowed on that plot of ground which is given to him to till,” what do you think he means? Possible answer: No person can succeed unless he or she uses the talents and insights given to him or her.

54 Literary Elements LITERARY ELEMENTS Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Find at least three other examples of figurative language in “Self-Reliance.” Tell how each image helps explain an idea or makes it concrete. Possible answers: “the soul hears an admonition” (personification) “cry of voices” (metonymy) “sculpture in the memory” (metaphor)

55 Literature and Writing Understanding Emerson’s Message What value does Emerson place on human ideas? How does he view the connection between nature and people? Write a brief analysis of Emerson’s ideas about human nature, using details from “Nature” and “Self- Reliance.”

56 Skill Minilessons Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Practice: Write a definition for each word or phrase below. Include the meaning of the prefix com- in each definition. Feel free to consult a dictionary. 1. collaborate meaning: to work together 2. committee meaning: a group that jointly performs certain duties 3. colleague meaning: a person one works with 4. corresponds meaning: is in comformity

57 Selection Focus Transparency 6-1

58 Grammar and Language Transparency 6-1

59 Grammar and Language Transparency 6-2

60 Grammar and Language Transparency 6-3

61 noun Grammar and Language Transparency 6-4 noun adjective adverb

62 Literary Elements Transparency 6-1

63 Literary Elements Transparency 6-2 metonymy– represents a river or stream metonymy– describes actions metonymy– represents ancestors metonymy– represents the monument

64 Literary Elements Transparency 6-3

65 Literary Elements Transparency 6-4 Ignorance and superstition are referred to as chaos and darkness. Society is compared to a “joint-stock company,” money or dividends to “bread.” An image or picture in the memory is compared to a “sculpture”

66 Writing Workshop 1 Descriptive Writing: Travel Article This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook. Travel is certainly one way to gain insight. You might even enjoy visiting the setting of a favorite literature selection. Many of the writers in this theme wrote about real places around the United States and the world. Now you will describe a real place. Follow the process on these pages to write your own travel article. Your challenge is to create a verbal snapshot of a location that will make your readers want to go there.

67 Writing Workshop 2 Click a hyperlink to explore that step of the writing process: Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing/Proofreading Publishing/Presenting Reflecting Descriptive Writing: Travel Article This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

68 PW Writing Workshop 3 List places you might write about.  –Ideas can come from your experiences, magazines, encyclopedias, or any source that is helpful.  –You might choose and research a place from one of the selections, such as Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts, where Thoreau wrote Walden.  –Next to each location, write some of its highlights. Prewriting: Explore Locations Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook. Descriptive Writing: Travel Article

69 PW Writing Workshop 4 Choose the place on your list that you would most like to explore.  Prewriting: Choose One Place Descriptive Writing: Travel Article What attracts you to this place?  Put your thoughts on paper.  To get more information, interview someone who has been there recently and study photographs.  Note facts and details that make the place remarkable. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

70 PW Writing Workshop 5 Prewriting: Consider Your Audience and Purpose Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Who will read your travel article?  You might send it to a company that publishes travel guides or magazines, post it on an Internet chat site for travel and vacations, create a travel brochure to send to the chamber of commerce closest to your destination, or just share your work with other students.  Whoever your audience is, remember that your purpose is to make readers want to visit the place. Choose specific words and a writing style that will persuade your readers and bring the travel location to life. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

71 PW Writing Workshop 6 Prewriting: Organize Your Ideas –Order of impression: Presenting details in the order in which they are noticed creates a ”you are there” feeling.  –Order of importance: Starting or ending with the most important detail helps the writer emphasize what is important.  –Spatial order: Arranging details according to location helps the reader travel through the setting. Review your notes. Use a highlighter or colored pen to mark main features that will appeal to your audience. Circle the best supporting details for each feature. Then organize your information by using one of the models below.  Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

72 D Writing Workshop 7 Drafting: Get Ready to Write Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Build your draft around your model for organizing ideas.  As you begin to write, think of yourself as a camera with a zoom lens.  Zoom in on one striking object or feature.  Pull back slowly, letting your lens range over a wider and wider area until you take in the whole picture. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

73 D Writing Workshop 8 Drafting: Draft Tour Description Stick to the overall impression, but remain open to any vivid details that will engage your audience.  End with a strong image. Leave readers eager to see the place for themselves. Let your ideas and words flow.  Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

74 R Writing Workshop 9 Revising: Take a Fresh Look Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Do you show readers what the place is like, or do you just tell about it?  Every detail should appeal to one of the five senses or help create an image in your reader’s mind.  Add transitions to help your writing flow smoothly.  Then review your work, using the Questions for Revising on the next slide. Take a break from your description; then pick it up again and imagine you are reading it for the first time.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

75 R Writing Workshop 10 Descriptive Writing: Travel Article  How might the order of supporting details be more effective?   Are there enough vivid details to bring the location to life for the reader?   Which details could be more lively?   Where could you use more precise words?   How well does the writing express your own enthusiasm for the location?   Does the ending make readers want to visit the place?  Is the opening attention-getting?  Revising: Questions for Revising Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

76 Revising: Let a Friend Read Your Description Have your friend answer the Questions for Revising, and discuss with your friend ideas for improving and presenting your work.  For example, you could add a sidebar–a short article that accompanies a major story–that tells readers how to get to the place. Invite a friend to read your description.  R Writing Workshop 11 Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

77 EP Writing Workshop 12 Editing/Proofreading Use the Proofreading Checklist on the inside back cover of your textbook. When your description is as vivid as you can make it, proofread for errors in grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling.  Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

78 The format of your description depends on your intended audience.  PP Writing Workshop 13 Publishing/Presenting Descriptive Writing: Travel Article If you write an article for the travel section of a newspaper, send a computer printout along with your own illustrations, photographs, maps, or sidebars.  If you create a brochure for an office of tourism, you might design a layout with space for headings, text, and images.  If you read your description to a group, consider adding poster-size images, appropriate music, a diorama, or even a T-shirt. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.

79 R Writing Workshop 14 Think about your experience in writing a description. Answer questions such as the following in your journal.  Reflecting Which part of the writing project was the most challenging? the most fun?  Set goals for your next piece of writing.  Given what you have learned about drafting and revising a description, how will you approach your next assignment differently? Descriptive Writing: Travel Article Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 308–311 of your textbook.


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