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Z26 Project Management Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Graham Collins, UCL

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1 Z26 Project Management Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Graham Collins, UCL

2 Why Plan? Control and optimize processes Process forces thinking about tasks and dependencies Scheduling of scarce resources Plan allows divergence to be tracked Properly thought through plan is a defence against unreasonable requests Breaking down a project into tasks allows effective delegation Individual tasks allow people to focus Plan becomes a communication tool Without a plan, things will be forgotten, started late, or allocated to several people. based on Nokes et al, The Definitive Guide to Project Management

3 SMART Objectives Specific Measurable Agreed upon Realistic Time (cost) limited

4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) example Lecture 4 1.Introduction 3.3 Case Study 1.1 Revision points 3.2.1 Issue log3.2.2 Scope management 1.2 Your answers 3.1 Explanation 3.2 Scope Creep 3.Scope2.WBS 1.2.1 Splitting problem down 1.3 Why plan? 1.2.1 Workshops

5 WBS concepts  Select a suitable category (work, product or other relevant structure)  is not constrained by sequence  final box is a product or deliverable which is measurable and definable  lowest level indicate work packages, which can be used for estimates, schedule monitoring and control  Entire project team should be involved

6 Work Breakdown Structure nA hierarchical breakdown of the work necessary to complete the project nPresented in an easy to navigate form nA Task Directory may be included here

7 Definitions  Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The level at which a piece of work within a project is broken down for programming, cost planning, monitoring and control purposes, to be performed by a specific person.  Work Package A group of related tasks that are defined at the same level within a work breakdown structure. Sources: BS6079 APMP Syllabus

8 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) - Exercise You are a specialist consultancy that provides business intelligence software. Your service includes understanding your clients needs and tailoring the software appropriately. A supermarket has had a previous client attempt this, however the software has been abandoned and the popularity of the stores are slowly declining. In groups: 1. Develop an appropriate WBS for a typical project 2. Show clearly defined phases for this process 3. Transfer your finished WBS onto a transparency for class discussion

9 Multi-tasking A C B A B C A C B 10 20 10 20 Multi-tasking concept discussed in Critical Chain -Goldratt

10 Book Slot Eliyahu M. Goldratt Critical Chain The North River Press 1997 ISBN: 0-88427-153-6

11 Scope creep It would be foolish not to make things better wouldn’t it?

12 Change Accepted Not in plan, plan incompatible with new objectives Cost/time overrun compromised technical quality Rejected Loss of opportunity Potential loss of income Ineffective business processes may be retained

13 Scope Management Process  Is it a change in scope?  Description of change  Consequences of accepting or rejecting change  Discuss results  Programme board compare revised document with business pay-offs  Change accepted, project relaunched. New objectives and plan communicated to all relevant stakeholders information that implies that the actual project is different from the planned project should trigger the following process:

14 Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process of Creating Major Change 1. Establishing a sense of urgency 2. Creating the guiding coalition 3. Developing a vision and strategy 4. Communicating the change vision 5. Empowering broad-based action 6. Generating short-term wins 7. Consolidating gains and producing more change 8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture. John Kotter (1996) Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press ISBN 0-87584-747-1

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