5Brief Roman History509 B.CEtruscan (from Etruria) ruler was expelled, and Rome became a republic (just as Athens became a democracy).Roman theatre and festivals highly influenced by Etruscan practices
6Brief Roman History by 345 B.C 240 B.C There were over 175 festivals a year240 B.CThe beginnings of Roman theatre recordedThe first record of drama at theludi Romani (Roman Festival orRoman Games).
7Brief Roman History55 B.CFirst stone theatre built in Rome by order of Julius Caesar.
8Roman Theatre Borrowed Greek ideas and improved (?) upon them Topics less philosophicalEntertainment tended to be grandiose, sentimental, diversionary
9Roman Theatre Included more than drama : acrobatics gladiators jugglersathleticschariots racesnaumachia (sea battles)boxingvenationes (animal fights)
11Roman Theatre 3 Major Influences Greek Drama Etruscan influences, which emphasized circus-like elementsFabula Atellana – which introduced FARCE (Atella was near Naples).
12Roman TheatreFarceShort improvised farces, with stock characters, similar costumes and masksbased on domestic life or mythologyburlesque, parodyMost popular during the 1st century B.C., then frequency declined
13Roman TheatreFarceProbably was the foundation for commedia dell ‘ArteProductions included “stock” characters:Bucco: braggart, boisterousPappas: foolish old manDossenus: swindler, drunk, hunchback
14Roman Theatre Pantomime solo dance, with music (lutes, pipes, cymbals) and a chorus.Used masksThe story-telling was usually mythology or historical stories, usually serious but sometimes comic.
15Roman Theatre Mime overtook after 2nd century A.D. The Church did not like MimeMost common attributes of mime:SpokenUsually shortSometimes elaborate casts and spectacle
16Roman Theatre Serious or comic (satiric) No masks Had women Violence and sex depicted literally (Heliogabalus, ruled A.D., ordered realistic sex)Scoffed at Christianity
17Roman FestivalsHeld in honor of the gods, but much less religious than the GreeksPerformances at festivals probably paid for by the state.Were often lengthy and included a series of plays or events, and probably had prizes awarded tp those who put extra money in.
18Roman FestivalsActing troupes (perhaps several a day) put on theatre events.Festivals were sometimes repeated, since whenever any irregularity in the rituals occurred, the entire festival, including the plays, had to be repeated. (known as instauratio)
19Roman Festivals ludi = official religious festivals these were preceded by pompa = religious procession
20Roman Festivals ludi Romani oldest of the official festivals held in September and honored Jupiterregular performance of comedy and tragedy began in 364 B.C.
21Roman Tragedy Characteristics of Roman Tragedy 5 acts/episodes divided by choral odesincluded elaborate speechesinterested in moralityunlike Greeks, they depicted violence on stage
22Roman Tragedy Characteristics of Roman Tragedy characters dominated by a single passion which drives them to doom (ex: obsessiveness or revenge)developed technical devices such as: soliloquies, asides, confidantsinterest in supernatural and human connections
23Roman Tragedy Seneca (5 or 4 B.C. – 65 A.D.) only playwright of tragedy whose plays survivedNine extant tragedies, five adapted from Euripides (Gr.)Though considered to be inferior, Seneca had a strong effect on later dramatists.
24Roman Tragedy Seneca (5 or 4 B.C. – 65 A.D.) WroteThe Trojan Women, Media, Oedipus, Agamemnon, etc., which were all based on Greek originalsHis plays were probably closet dramas—never presented, or even expected to be.
25Roman Comedy Characteristics of Roman Comedy Chorus was abandoned No act or scene divisionsConcerned everyday, domestic affairsAction placed in the street
26Roman Comedy Material from only 2 playwrights survived Platus (c B.C.)Terence (195 or B.C.)
27Roman Comedy Platus (c. 254-184 B.C.) Very popular. Plays include: Pot of Gold, The Menaechmi, Braggart WarriorAll based on Greek New Comedies, probably, none of which has survived
28Roman Comedy Platus (c. 254-184 B.C.) Added Roman allusions, Latin dialog, witty jokesvaried poetic metersDeveloped Slapstick & Songs
29Roman Comedy Terence (195 or 185-159 B.C.) Wrote only six plays, all of which survive, including: The Brothers, Mother-in-LawMore complex plots – combined stories from Greek originals.
30Roman Comedy Terence (195 or 185-159 B.C.) Character and double-plots were his forteLess boisterous than Plautus, less episodic, more elegant language.Used Greek characters.Less popular than Plautus.