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Week 6: Doing Critical Discourse Analysis EDUC2029.

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1 Week 6: Doing Critical Discourse Analysis EDUC2029

2 Anticipatory set Noun Group: Deictic (pointer) Numerative (how many?) Qualifier (what quality?) Classifier (what type?) Thing Post-modifier (what else?) Identify the parts of these noun groups: 1.The subtle science of potion-making 2.(there is) little foolish wand-waving 3.The beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes 4.The delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses

3 Anticipatory set: answers DeicticNum.QualifierClassifierThingPost-modifier Thesubtlescienceof potion-making littlefoolishwand- waving Thebeautyof the soft…fumes Thedelicatepowerof liquids that…senses

4 Anticipatory set: answers The beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes – The soft simmering cauldron – Its shimmering fumes The delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses – Liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses – Human veins – The mind – The senses

5 Aims To ‘do’ some Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) To review grammatical resources covered so far To introduce you to the resources of Appraisal To clarify the second assignment

6 Outline Anticipatory set: reviewing noun groups Assignment Two Analysing a text about school Appraisal Conclusion: ‘homework’ and the tutorial

7 Assignment 2 CDA (Critical Discourse Analysis) of Policy Document

8 Topic Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of Policy Document Select a text – to be approved by me ASAP – One page or a section from a policy document in your main subject for teaching, e.g. English, Science, History – See Education Queensland (EQ), Queensland Study Authority (QSA) or Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) websites  Google – Supply original of page or a good copy along with citation  appendix to assignment

9 Content Part One: Analysis – see guide questions on assignment description Part Two: Summary/Conclusions

10 Criteria Knowledge of the key concepts Function of grammatical features in text to give meanings that represent the world Understanding/discussion of text’s ideological foundations, their relevance to education Quality of writing

11 Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis Conditions of production & interpretation Socio cultural practice Situational Institutional Societal Process of production & interpretation Discourse practice Text Description: what does it look like? (text analysis) Explanation: why is it this way? (social analysis) Interpretation: what does it all mean? (processing analysis)

12 Doing CDA Severus Snape and the Sinister Systems of Text

13 Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis Conditions of production & interpretation Socio cultural practice Situational Institutional Societal Process of production & interpretation Discourse practice Text

14 Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis Conditions of production & interpretation Socio cultural practice Situational Institutional Societal Process of production & interpretation Discourse practice Text Description: what does it look like? (text analysis) Explanation: why is it this way? (social analysis) Interpretation: what does it all mean? (processing analysis)

15 Developing a metalanguage Systems of choice Subject matter Participant Process Circumstance Noun group Roles and relationships Mood Modality Appraisal Mode and medium Theme and Rheme Cohesion

16 Severus Snape and the Sinister Systems of Text What do you know about Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone? What do you know about the series? How do you feel personally about the book/series? Do you like Professor Snape? Why or why not? How judgements do you make about the value/worth of the book/series? And finally: How should teachers ‘run’ classrooms’?

17 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Professor Severus Snape is addressing a class for the first time: ‘You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making,’ he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. ‘As there is little foolish wand-waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I don’t expect you will really understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses…I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.’

18 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Professor Severus Snape is addressing a class for the first time: ‘You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making,’ he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. ‘As there is little foolish wand-waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I don’t expect you will really understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses…I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.’ Cultural context – What “Club/s” are we in? (Multiple) – Genre and purpose? Social context – What’s it about? – Who is writing for whom? What relationships are being established? – What’s the mode: written, spoken, visual, audio, gestural, spatial?

19 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Professor Severus Snape is addressing a class for the first time: ‘You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making,’ he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. ‘As there is little foolish wand-waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I don’t expect you will really understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses…I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.’ What aspects of language stand out for you?

20 Developing a metalanguage Systems of choice Subject matter Participant Process Circumstance Noun group Roles and relationships Mood Modality Appraisal Mode and medium Theme and Rheme Cohesion

21 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Processes Professor Severus Snape is addressing a class for the first time: ‘You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making,’ he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. ‘As there is little foolish wand- waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I don’t expect you will (really) understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses…I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.’

22 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Processes Process typesSnapeStudentsOther DoingCan teach Have to teach Creep BeingHadAreIs SayingBegan Spoke Thinking, perceiving, sensing Don’t expectLearn Caught (i.e. heard) Will (hardly) believe Will (not really) understand Bewitching Ensnaring

23 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Theme ‘You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making,’ he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. ‘As there is little foolish wand-waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I don’t expect you will really understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses… I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.’

24 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Theme I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach. What’s the purpose of the dash?

25 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Mood ‘You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making,’ he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. ‘As there is little foolish wand- waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I don’t expect you will really understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses…I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.’ Statements (Declarative Mood) Questions (Interrogative Mood) Commands (Imperative Mood)

26 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Mood ‘Potter!’ said Snape suddenly. ‘What would I get if I added powdered root of asphodel to an infusion of wormwood?’ Powdered root of what to an infusion of what? Harry glanced at Ron, who looked as stumped as he was; Hermione’s hand had shot into the air. ‘I don’t know, sir,’ said Harry. Snape’s lip curled into a sneer. ‘Tut, tut – fame clearly isn’t everything.’ He ignored Hermione’s hand. ‘Let’s try again, Potter, where would you look if I told you to find me a bezoar?’ … ‘I don’t know, sir.’ ‘Thought you wouldn’t open a book before coming, eh, Potter?’

27 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Mood Snape was still ignoring Hermione’s quivering hand. ‘What is the difference, Potter, between monkshood and wolfsbane? At this, Hermione stood up, her hand stretching towards the dungeon ceiling. ‘I don’t know,’ said Harry quietly. ‘I think Hermione does, though, why don’t you try her?’ A few people laughed; Harry caught Seamus’s eye and Seamus winked. Snape, however, was not pleased. ‘Sit down,’ he snapped at Hermione. ‘For your information, Potter, asphodel and wormwood make a sleeping potion so powerful…’ etc etc…

28 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Mood SnapeInterrogative (question – known answer) HarryInterrogative (question to self – unknown answer) Declarative (statement made aloud – response to Snape) SnapeDeclarative (statement) Imperative (command), Interrogative (question – known answer) HarryDeclarative (statement – response to Snape) SnapeInterrogative (rhetorical question) Interrogative (question – known answer) HarryDeclarative (statement – response to Snape) Interrogative (question – known answer) SnapeImperative (command) Declarative (series of statements answering most of his own questions)

29 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Mood What role does Snape have? How does he use language to establish and maintain relationships with Harry and other students? What role does Harry have? How does Harry use language to establish and maintain relationships with Snape – and other students? Who has the power?

30 Putting it altogether Professor Severus Snape is addressing a class for the first time: ‘You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making,’ he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. ‘As there is little foolish wand-waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I don’t expect you will really understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses…I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you aren’t as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.’ Cultural context – What “Club/s” are we in? Their values/beliefs/ assumptions/ theories (ideology)? – Genre and purpose? Social context – What’s it about? – Who is writing for whom? What relationships are being established?

31 Fairclough’s dimension of discourse and discourse analysis Conditions of production & interpretation Socio cultural practice Situational Institutional Societal Process of production & interpretation Discourse practice Text Description: what does it look like? (text analysis) Explanation: why is it this way? (social analysis) Interpretation: what does it all mean? (processing analysis)

32 Is this all starting to make sense?

33 Introducing Appraisal

34 Developing a metalanguage Systems of choice Subject matter Participant Process Circumstance Noun group Roles and relationships Mood Modality Appraisal Mode and medium Theme and Rheme Cohesion

35 Developing a metalanguage Systems of choice Subject matter Participant Process Circumstance Noun group Roles and relationships Mood Modality Appraisal Mode and medium Theme and Rheme Cohesion

36 Appraisal: Overview “Appraisal can be simply defined as the indication of whether the speaker thinks that something (a person, thing, action, event, situation, idea, etc.) is good or bad.” (Thompson, 2004, p75)

37 Appraisal: Overview According to P. R. White (2001), Appraisal (or APPRAISAL) is: An approach to exploring, describing and explaining the way language is used to evaluate, to adopt stances, to construct textual personas and to manage interpersonal positionings and relationships

38 Appraisal resources Affect (expressing emotions – ‘from the heart’) Judgement (of people, things, ideas – ‘from the head’) Graduation (turning the volume up and down) Engagement (one voice v many voices – ‘opening or closing the door’)

39 Activity: Whole group See if you can spot the use of the Appraisal system in the following texts.

40 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker With his skin tanned dark by the Athens sun, long hair pulled back in a top knot and sporting the start of a beard, Ian Thorpe looked, if not like a Greek god, then at least like a Greek general. A very special Greek general. One like Thorpe, an Olympian. Conqueror of everything in his path. Alexander the Great.

41 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker There is more to Ian Thorpe than swimming. He is a young man of enormous intellect. He enjoys yoga, philosophy and studying Greek history. And he especially enjoys the reading of Alexander, king of Macedon, ruler of the known world more than 2300 years ago. It is not hard to draw comparisons between Thorpe and Alexander, two men in their early 20s who came to Athens with similar intentions. One to rule a country, the other a swimming pool. Both succeeded. Thorpe is well aware of the story of Alexander. He knows how the story starts; he knows how the story ends. With the young warrior sitting on a rock and crying when he has no more lands to conquer… from The Courier Mail, August 28, 2004, page 45

42 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker Context? Genre Field (subject matter) Tenor (roles and relationships: who is the author? Who is meant to read this?) Mode: written, spoken, audio, gestural, spatial

43 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker With his skin tanned dark by the Athens sun, long hair pulled back in a top knot and sporting the start of a beard, Ian Thorpe looked, if not like a Greek god, then at least like a Greek general. A very special Greek general. One like Thorpe, an Olympian. Conqueror of everything in his path. Alexander the Great.

44 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker There is more to Ian Thorpe than swimming. He is a young man of enormous intellect. He enjoys yoga, philosophy and studying Greek history. And he especially enjoys the reading of Alexander, king of Macedon, ruler of the known world more than 2300 years ago. It is not hard to draw comparisons between Thorpe and Alexander, two men in their early 20s who came to Athens with similar intentions. One to rule a country, the other a swimming pool. Both succeeded. Thorpe is well aware of the story of Alexander. He knows how the story starts; he knows how the story ends. With the young warrior sitting on a rock and crying when he has no more lands to conquer… from The Courier Mail, August 28, 2004, page 45

45 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker Affect: happy/unhappy; secure/insecure; satisfaction (Thorpie the Great)/dissatisfaction Judgement: normality (looked like a Greek God…like a Greek General; a very special Greek General…an Olympian etc); capacity (conqueror of everything in his path); tenacity; resolve; truth; ethics Appreciation: reaction; composition (with his skin etc…; looked like a Greek God…like a Greek General); valuation Grading: implicit; explicit [Like a Greek God..like a Greek General – simile and repetition] Modality: obligation; certainty; probability; usuality [No modulation – so information is not called into question.] Attribution [Journalist’s voice only, but invokes historians] With his skin tanned dark by the Athens sun, long hair pulled back in a top knot and sporting the start of a beard, Ian Thorpe looked, if not like a Greek god, then at least like a Greek general. A very special Greek general. One like Thorpe, an Olympian. Conqueror of everything in his path. Alexander the Great.

46 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker Affect: happy/unhappy; secure/insecure; satisfaction (Thorpie the Great)/dissatisfaction Judgement: normality (looked like a Greek God…like a Greek General; a very special Greek General…an Olympian etc); capacity (conqueror of everything in his path); tenacity; resolve; truth; ethics Appreciation: reaction; composition (with his skin etc…; looked like a Greek God…like a Greek General); valuation Grading: implicit; explicit [Like a Greek God..like a Greek General – simile and repetition] Modality: obligation; certainty; probability; usuality [No modulation – so information is not called into question.] Attribution [Journalist’s voice only, but invokes historical texts]

47 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker There is more to Ian Thorpe than swimming. He is a young man of enormous intellect. He enjoys yoga, philosophy and studying Greek history. And he especially enjoys the reading of Alexander, king of Macedon, ruler of the known world more than 2300 years ago. It is not hard to draw comparisons between Thorpe and Alexander, two men in their early 20s who came to Athens with similar intentions. One to rule a country, the other a swimming pool. Both succeeded. Thorpe is well aware of the story of Alexander. He knows how the story starts; he knows how the story ends. With the young warrior sitting on a rock and crying when he has no more lands to conquer… Affect: happy/unhappy; secure/insecure (young warrior sitting on a rock and crying when he has no more lands to conquer); satisfaction/dissatisfaction Judgement: normality (enjoys); capacity (young; enormous intellect; succeeded; not hard to draw comparisons…); tenacity; resolve; truth; ethics Appreciation: reaction; composition; valuation (crying) [Also see image] Grading: implicit; explicit (enormous intellect; especially enjoys; not hard to draw comparisons between Thorpe and Alexander) Modality: obligation; certainty; probability; usuality Attribution

48 Thorpie the Great proves a great risk taker Affect: happy/unhappy; secure/insecure (young warrior sitting on a rock and crying when he has no more lands to conquer); satisfaction/dissatisfaction Judgement: normality (enjoys); capacity (young; enormous intellect; succeeded; not hard to draw comparisons…); tenacity; resolve; truth; ethics Appreciation: reaction; composition; valuation (crying) [Also see image] Grading: implicit; explicit (enormous intellect; especially enjoys; not hard to draw comparisons between Thorpe and Alexander) Modality: obligation; certainty; probability; usuality Attribution

49 Thorpe tells of gay rumours Swimmer Ian Thorpe says he is “flattered” by persistent – and false – rumours about his sexuality. The Olympic gold medallist and world champion swimmer also says that two stalkers may have intended to blackmail him with a videotape. Speculation about Thorpe’s sexuality was based on inference and shallow judgements, Thorpe told ABC Radio’s Sunday Profile program. from The Sunday Mail, 17 November 2002, page 25.

50 Thorpe tells of gay rumours Swimmer Ian Thorpe says he is “flattered” by persistent – and false – rumours about his sexuality. The Olympic gold medallist and world champion swimmer also says that two stalkers may have intended to blackmail him with a videotape. Speculation about Thorpe’s sexuality was based on inference and shallow judgements, Thorpe told ABC Radio’s Sunday Profile program. from The Sunday Mail, 17 November 2002, page 25.

51 Back to Snape… ‘His eyes were black like Hagrid’s, but they had none of Hagrid’s warmth. They were cold and empty and made you think of dark tunnels.’ Affect (expressing emotions – ‘from the heart’) Judgement (of people, things, ideas – ‘from the head’) Graduation (turning the volume up and down) Engagement (one voice v many voices – ‘opening or closing the door’)

52 Back to Snape… ‘His eyes were black like Hagrid’s, but they had none of Hagrid’s warmth. They were cold and empty and made you think of dark tunnels.’ Why is there a comparison to Hagrid? Who is the you in made you think of dark tunnels? What is assumed here?

53 Back to Snape… How do you explain Snape’s expansion of noun groups when discussing potion-making? ‘the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes’ ‘the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses’ How does this ‘fit’ with the other language used to construct Snape by J. K. Rowling?

54 CDA…Declare yourself Jim Martin and David Rose (2003): ‘It perhaps should be stressed again here that appraisal analysts do need to declare their reading positions, in particular since the evaluation one makes of evocations depends on the institutional position one is reading from.’

55 More… See the Goatly reading

56 Questions?

57 Conclusion

58 “Homework” and Tutorial Homework: Find a text for analysis Tutorial: – CDA of history texts – Exploring reader positioning

59 References Martin, J. R. and Rose, D. (2003). Working with discourse: meaning beyond the clause. London” Continuum. Thompson, G. (2004). Introducing Functional Grammar. London: Arnold.


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