Chapter 2: Let’s Start With the Ladies—The Goddesses Demeter –Goddess of Crops and Agriculture –Happy—fields are green, grasses grow –Sad—fields and grass suffer –Mother of Persephone –Myth explains seasonal changes
Let’s Start With the Ladies The Goddesses Hera –Sister and wife of Zeus –Queen of the Gods –Mean, jealous –Hated Heracles (Hercules) –Drove Heracles to kill his own sons –Often tried to kill him; always lost
Let’s Start With the Ladies The Goddesses Hestia –Halo over her head –Guardian Angel of Goddesses –Helped orphans and lost children –Helped people enjoy family life
Let’s Start With the Ladies The Goddesses Athena –Goddess of Wisdom –Born from Zeus’s head (big headache!) –Hephaestus hit Zeus in the head with an ax and out popped Athena. –She came out full grown and with a sword
Athena and a Contest A human girl, Arachne, bragged about being the best weaver around even though Athena invented weaving. Athena challenged her to a contest and Arachne lost. Arachne hung herself; Athena turned her into a spider. (Hmmm…arachnids?)
Aphrodite Goddess of Love Born from the sea and the dismembered pieces of Uranus Most beautiful woman ever seen! Men brought her gifts, and Hera made her choose Hephaestus
Women can start wars! The goddesses were arguing over who was the most beautiful. Paris chose Aphrodite in order to get the most beautiful girl in the world, Helen of Troy. Helen left Menelaus and caused the Trojan War.
The Trojan War Spartans vs. Trojans All because of Helen of Troy!
Chapter 3: Let’s Hear It for the Boys The Gods Hades –God of the Underworld –Ruled the dead –God of Wealth –Invisible helmet –Kidnapped Persephone
The Gods Poseidon –God of the Sea –Uses a three-pronged trident –Violent and unpredictable –Greedy –Second in command to Zeus
The Gods Zeus –God of the Sky –Father of them All –King of all Gods –Fathered many gods and goddesses
Chapter 4: The Many Children of Zeus Apollo –God of the Sun –Most handsome –Son of Zeus and Leto –Taught wisdom not material gifts –Invented music –Killed Marsyas and nailed his skin to a tree where a river formed—still there today!
The Many Children of Zeus Ares –God of War –Son of Zeus and Hera –Always in armor and wearing a helmet –Out of control temper! –Loves Aphrodite
The Many Children of Zeus Dionysus –God of the Vine –Invented Wine –Brings joy and anger to people –Wine is both sweet and sour –Known to drive people crazy –Born from Zeus’s thigh
The Many Children of Zeus Hephaestus –God of Smithing –Son of Zeus and Hera –Born small and ugly –Hera threw him off a cliff –Amazing craftsman (thunderbolts, jewelry, trident) –Married Aphrodite
The Many Children of Zeus Hermes –Messenger God –Son of Zeus and Maia –Rotten and mischievous –Stole Apollo’s cows –Played the lyre –Winged shoes –Worked for Hades and Zeus
The Many Children of Zeus Perseus –Son of Zeus and Danae –Grandfather sent Perseus and Danae away –King Polydictes raised them; King wanted to marry Danae –Sent Perseus to get Medusa’s head –Gets head and kills grandfather –Saved Andromeda
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods The Erinyes (Tisiphone, Mageara, Alecto) –Responsible for punishing crimes –Also called “Furies” –Followed bad, evil people and drove them to their deaths –Came from the blood of Uranus
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods Eris –Unpopular –One of the women to indirectly caused the Trojan War
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods Eros –God of Love (Cupid) –Son of Aphrodite –Blinded because love is blind –Arrows he throws are magically treated
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods The Fates –Decided each person’s identity –Chose if you were good or evil Clotho-Spinner, Spun the thread of life Lacheis-Measurer, Decided the length Atropos-Shears or cuts the thread
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods The Graces –Sang and danced for the gods –Daughters of Zeus and Eurynome Aglaia—splendor Euphrosyne—mirth Thalia—good cheer
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods Hebe –Goddess of Youth –Daughter of Zeus and Hera
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods The Muses Clio—History Urania—Astronomy Melpomene—Tragedy Thalia—Comedy Terpsichore—Dance Calliope—Epic Poetry Erato—Love Poetry Polyhymnia—Songs to the Gods Euterpe—Lyric Poetry
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods Nemesis –Helped to avenge those who were wronged –People were scared of her!
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods Pan –God of Goatherds and Shepherds –Son of Hermes (half goat/half man) –Goat horns and feet –Term “panic” comes from him
Chapter 5: Top Ten Lesser Gods Thanatos –God of Death –Friendly with Hades –Lived in the Underworld
Chapter 6: Foolish Mortals Medusa –Mortal girl –Athena changed her hair to snakes when she caught her with Poseidon in Athena’s palace
Chapter 6: Foolish Mortals Medea –Wife of Jason, she could cast spells –Jason left her and she made his new bride a wedding dress that killed her –She killed her own sons to get back at Jason
Chapter 6: Foolish Mortals King Midas –Everything he touched turned to gold –His daughter turned to gold –He asked to be changed back and was
Chapter 6: Foolish Mortals Daedalus –Great inventor –Killed his nephew Talos because he was bragging about being a better inventor –Athena forced him to leave Athens –Escaped the Labyrinth with his son Icarus
Chapter 6: Foolish Mortals Pandora –Made by Hephaestus out of clay –Athena breathed life into her –She opened the box that brought disease and bad thoughts to the world.
Chapter 6: Foolish Mortals King of Thessaly –His children were rescued by the magical ram Narcissus –In love with himself
Chapter 7: Top Ten Monsters Argus –AKA Panoptes –100 eyes –Giant –Killed by Zeus
Chapter 7: Top Ten Monsters Centaurs –Part human and part horse Cerberus –3 Headed Watch-Dog –Guarded the Underworld for Hades
Chapter 7: Top Ten Monsters Charybdis –Daughter of Poseidon –Killed people for fun Cyclopes –One eye in forehead –Gigantic monster
Chapter 7: Top Ten Monsters Harpies –Face of a woman –Body of a vulture Nymphs –Fairies in the woodlands and ponds
Chapter 7: Top Ten Monsters Pegasus –Winged flying horse –Son born out of Medusa’s head Phoenix –Bird of Apollo –Could burn and rise from the dead Sirens –Half bird/Half woman –Enchanting songs lured sailors to death