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Volunteering in Shanghai Songxing Su Shanghai Population & Development Research Center Tit-wing Lo Chau-kiu Cheung City University of Hong Kong 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Volunteering in Shanghai Songxing Su Shanghai Population & Development Research Center Tit-wing Lo Chau-kiu Cheung City University of Hong Kong 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volunteering in Shanghai Songxing Su Shanghai Population & Development Research Center Tit-wing Lo Chau-kiu Cheung City University of Hong Kong 1

2 Volunteering commitment and performance Incompetent (Ascoli and Cnaan 1997) Incompetent (Ascoli and Cnaan 1997) Ideological (Ascoli and Cnaan 1997) Ideological (Ascoli and Cnaan 1997) Short-lived (Cress and McPherson 1997) Short-lived (Cress and McPherson 1997) Competing commitment (Cress and McPherson 1997) Competing commitment (Cress and McPherson 1997) Resource-dependence (Okun 1994; Wheeler et al. 1998) Resource-dependence (Okun 1994; Wheeler et al. 1998) Dependence on experience, learning (Edwards et al. 2001) Dependence on experience, learning (Edwards et al. 2001) 2

3 Analytic framework 3 Volunteering competence Volunteering performance Volunteering endurance. Commitment, Qualified commitment Volunteering experience: Empowerment, Social capital Backgrounds Commitment × Performance

4 Theories applied before Resource (Hodghinson 2003; Jones 2006; Tang 2006; Wilson and Musick 1999a) Resource (Hodghinson 2003; Jones 2006; Tang 2006; Wilson and Musick 1999a) Human, social, cultural capital (Oesterle et al. 2004; Wilson and Musick 1997) Human, social, cultural capital (Oesterle et al. 2004; Wilson and Musick 1997) Empowerment Empowerment Consistency: Value, belief, motivation (Thoits and Hewitt 2001; Wilson 2000) Consistency: Value, belief, motivation (Thoits and Hewitt 2001; Wilson 2000) Motive, functional (Clary et al. 1998) Motive, functional (Clary et al. 1998) Dominant status, functionalist (Cnaan and Cascio 1999; Oesterle et al. 2004; Reed and Selbee 2000) Dominant status, functionalist (Cnaan and Cascio 1999; Oesterle et al. 2004; Reed and Selbee 2000) Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic status Exchange (Midlarsky and Kahana 1994; Wilson and Musick 1999a; Wilson 2000) Exchange (Midlarsky and Kahana 1994; Wilson and Musick 1999a; Wilson 2000) Recognition Psychoanalytic (Midlarsky and Kahana 1994) Psychoanalytic (Midlarsky and Kahana 1994) Low self-esteem Sequential specificity (Smith 1980) Sequential specificity (Smith 1980) Volunteering history moderating effects 4

5 Theories specifically applied here Fitness/affinity (Chiricos et al. 1997; Dawkins 2006) Fitness/affinity (Chiricos et al. 1997; Dawkins 2006) Role × Empowerment Role × Empowerment Conservatism × Habit Conservatism × Habit Need fulfillment, diminishing marginal return (Liu 2000; Ozcan et al. 1997) Need fulfillment, diminishing marginal return (Liu 2000; Ozcan et al. 1997) Motive/need × Empowerment Motive/need × Empowerment Completion, saturation Completion, saturation Performance × Duration Performance × Duration Social learning, reward and frustration Social learning, reward and frustration Work with trauma × Incompetence Work with trauma × Incompetence 5

6 Number of volunteers 6

7 Volunteering for different causes (%) 7

8 Age (years) and female (%) 8

9 Employment status (%) 9

10 Profession (%) 10

11 Monthly income ( ¥ ) 11

12 Household member (number) 12

13 Acquiescence and large scoring tendencies (0-100) 13

14 Volunteering motives (0-100) 14

15 Self-concepts (0-100) 15

16 Volunteering experiences (0-100) 16

17 Empowerment experience in volunteering (0-100) 17

18 Social capital (0-100) 18

19 Volunteering commitment (0-100) 19

20 Volunteering time (years) 20

21 Predicting volunteering endurance Regression analysis based on Cox’s proportional hazard model for censored data Regression analysis based on Cox’s proportional hazard model for censored data Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 3: Interactions Block 3: Interactions 21

22 Standardized effects of background characteristics on volunteering endurance 22 Resource / Constraint

23 Standardized effects of volunteering experiences on volunteering endurance 23 Resource / Constraint Consistency

24 Standardized effects of empowerment and social capital on volunteering endurance 24 Resource / Constraint

25 Standardized effects of interactions involving volunteer performance and competence on volunteering endurance 25 Need fulfillment

26 Standardized effects of interactions involving volunteer commitment before on volunteering endurance 26 Affinity

27 Standardized effects of interactions involving empowerment on volunteering endurance 27 Need fulfillment: No need Affinity contradiction

28 Standardized effects of interactions involving volunteering location on volunteering endurance 28 Incompetence Affinity Completion

29 Standardized effects of interactions involving volunteering duration on volunteering endurance 29 Sequential specificity

30 Predicting volunteering commitment Regression analysis Regression analysis Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 3: Interactions Block 3: Interactions 30

31 Standardized effects of background characteristics on volunteering commitment 31

32 Standardized effects of volunteering experiences on volunteering commitment 32 Resource / Constraint

33 Standardized effects of empowerment and social capital on volunteering commitment 33 Resource / Constraint

34 Standardized effects of interactions involving volunteering experience on volunteering commitment 34 Need fulfillment

35 Standardized effects of interactions involving volunteering location on volunteering commitment 35 Affinity

36 Predicting volunteering performance Regression analysis Regression analysis Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 3: Interactions Block 3: Interactions 36

37 Standardized effects of background characteristics on volunteering performance 37 Resource / Constraint

38 Standardized effects of volunteering experience on volunteering performance 38 Resource / Constraint Consistency

39 Standardized effects of interactions on volunteering performance 39 Need fulfillment Affinity: recognition, reward amplification

40 Predicting qualified volunteering commitment Regression analysis Regression analysis Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 3: Interactions Block 3: Interactions 40

41 Standardized effects of background characteristics on qualified volunteering commitment 41 Resource / Constraint

42 Standardized effects of volunteering experiences on qualified volunteering commitment 42 Resource / Constraint

43 Standardized effects of empowerment and social capital on qualified volunteering commitment 43 Resource / Constraint

44 Standardized effects of interactions on qualified volunteering commitment 44 Need fulfillment Affinity

45 Predicting volunteering competence Regression analysis Regression analysis Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 1: Basic backgrounds Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 2: Volunteering experiences and self- concepts Block 3: Interactions Block 3: Interactions 45

46 Standardized effects of background characteristics on volunteering competence 46 Resource / Constraint

47 Standardized effects of volunteering experiences on volunteering competence 47 Learning from frustration

48 Standardized effects of empowerment and social capital on volunteering competence 48 Resource / Constraint

49 Standardized effects of interactions on volunteering competence 49 Need fulfillment Affinity

50 Olympic vs. local volunteering  Volunteering endurance, volunteering performance  Volunteering endurance, volunteering performance National significance, norm National significance, norm Rewarding, exchange Rewarding, exchange Support, empowerment, resources Support, empowerment, resources 50

51 Factors related to volunteering Resources, capital, empowerment, dominant status Resources, capital, empowerment, dominant status Not psychoanalytic Not psychoanalytic Consistency Consistency Need fulfillment Need fulfillment Affinity Affinity Sequential specificity Sequential specificity Incompletion Incompletion 51

52 Resources Volunteering competence Volunteering competence  Volunteering commitment  Volunteering commitment Empowerment for upgrading Empowerment for upgrading  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance Social capital from other volunteers Social capital from other volunteers  Volunteering commitment, qualified commitment  Volunteering commitment, qualified commitment Non-student Non-student  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance Self-esteem Self-esteem  Volunteering commitment  Volunteering commitment Cadre Cadre  Volunteering commitment, qualified commitment, competence  Volunteering commitment, qualified commitment, competence Teacher Teacher  Volunteering competence  Volunteering competence 52

53 Consistency Volunteering duration this time Volunteering duration this time  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance Volunteering commitment before Volunteering commitment before  Volunteering performance  Volunteering performance 53

54 Need fulfillment Volunteering performance × Protection motive Volunteering performance × Protection motive  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance Empowerment for managing × Non-manager Empowerment for managing × Non-manager  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance Empowerment for managing × Social motive Empowerment for managing × Social motive  Qualified volunteering commitment  Qualified volunteering commitment Empowerment for decision making × Protection motive Empowerment for decision making × Protection motive  Volunteering competence  Volunteering competence 54

55 Affinity/fitness Volunteering endurance Volunteering endurance  Volunteering commitment before  Volunteering commitment before × Teacher × Teacher × Volunteering variety × Volunteering variety  Local volunteering × Low income  Local volunteering × Low income  Volunteering commitment before × Volunteering variety  Volunteering commitment before × Volunteering variety Qualified volunteering commitment Qualified volunteering commitment  Volunteering commitment before × low self-determination  Volunteering commitment before × low self-determination Volunteering performance Volunteering performance  Volunteering competence × Social capital from other volunteers  Volunteering competence × Social capital from other volunteers Volunteering competence Volunteering competence Empowering for management × Manager Empowering for management × Manager 55

56 Sequential specificity Volunteering history × Understanding motive Volunteering history × Understanding motive  low Volunteering endurance  low Volunteering endurance 56

57 References Ascoli, Ugo, and Ram A. Cnaan "Volunteering for Human Service Provisions: Lessons from Italy and the U.S.A." Social Indicators Research 40: Ascoli, Ugo, and Ram A. Cnaan "Volunteering for Human Service Provisions: Lessons from Italy and the U.S.A." Social Indicators Research 40: Chiricos, Ted, Sarah Eschholz, and Marc Gertz "Crime, News, and Fear of Crime: Toward an Identification of Audience Effects." Social Problems 44(3): Chiricos, Ted, Sarah Eschholz, and Marc Gertz "Crime, News, and Fear of Crime: Toward an Identification of Audience Effects." Social Problems 44(3): Clary, E. Gil, Mark Snyder, Robert D. Ridge, John Copeland, Arthur A. Stukas, Julie Haugen, and Peter Miene "Understanding and Assessing the Motivations of Volunteers: A Functional Approach." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 74(6): Clary, E. Gil, Mark Snyder, Robert D. Ridge, John Copeland, Arthur A. Stukas, Julie Haugen, and Peter Miene "Understanding and Assessing the Motivations of Volunteers: A Functional Approach." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 74(6): Cnaan, Ram A., and Toni A. Cascio "Performance and Commitment: Issues in Management of Volunteers in Human Service Organization." Administration in Social Work 24(3/4):1-38. Cnaan, Ram A., and Toni A. Cascio "Performance and Commitment: Issues in Management of Volunteers in Human Service Organization." Administration in Social Work 24(3/4):1-38. Cress, Daniel M., J. Miller McPherson "Competition and Commitment in Voluntary Memberships: The Paradox of Persistence and Participation." Sociological Perspectives 40(1): Cress, Daniel M., J. Miller McPherson "Competition and Commitment in Voluntary Memberships: The Paradox of Persistence and Participation." Sociological Perspectives 40(1): Dawkins, Casey J "Are Social Networks the Ties that Bind Families to Neighborhoods." Housing Studies 21(6): Dawkins, Casey J "Are Social Networks the Ties that Bind Families to Neighborhoods." Housing Studies 21(6): Edwards, Bob, Linda Mooney, and Carl Heald "Community Organizations." Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 30(3): Edwards, Bob, Linda Mooney, and Carl Heald "Community Organizations." Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 30(3): Hodgkinson, Virginia A "Volunteering in Global Perspective." Pp in The Values of Volunteering: Cross-cultural Perspectives, edited by Paul Dekker and Loek Halman. New York: Kluwer. Hodgkinson, Virginia A "Volunteering in Global Perspective." Pp in The Values of Volunteering: Cross-cultural Perspectives, edited by Paul Dekker and Loek Halman. New York: Kluwer. 57

58 References Jones, Keely S "Giving and Volunteering as Distinct Forms of Civic Engagement: The Role of Community Integration and Personal Resources in Formal Helping." Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 35(2): Jones, Keely S "Giving and Volunteering as Distinct Forms of Civic Engagement: The Role of Community Integration and Personal Resources in Formal Helping." Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 35(2): Liu, Chien "A Theory of Marital Sexual Life." Journal of Marriage & the Family 62(2): Liu, Chien "A Theory of Marital Sexual Life." Journal of Marriage & the Family 62(2): Midlarsky, Elizabeth, and Eva Kahana Altruism in Late Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Midlarsky, Elizabeth, and Eva Kahana Altruism in Late Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Oesterle, Sabrina, Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson, and Jeylan T. Mortimer "Volunteerism during the Transition to Adulthood: A Life Course Perspective." Social Forces 82(3): Oesterle, Sabrina, Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson, and Jeylan T. Mortimer "Volunteerism during the Transition to Adulthood: A Life Course Perspective." Social Forces 82(3): Okun, Morris A "The Relation between Motives for Organizational Volunteering and Frequency of Volunteering by Elders." Journal of Applied Gerontology 13(2): Okun, Morris A "The Relation between Motives for Organizational Volunteering and Frequency of Volunteering by Elders." Journal of Applied Gerontology 13(2): Ozcan, Yasar A., Ramesh K. Shukla, and Laura H. Tyler "Organizational Performance in the Community Mental Health Care System: The Need Fulfillment Perspective." Organization Science 8(2): Ozcan, Yasar A., Ramesh K. Shukla, and Laura H. Tyler "Organizational Performance in the Community Mental Health Care System: The Need Fulfillment Perspective." Organization Science 8(2): Reed, Paul B., and L. Kevin Selbee "Distinguishing Characteristics of Active Volunteers in Canada." Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 29(4): Reed, Paul B., and L. Kevin Selbee "Distinguishing Characteristics of Active Volunteers in Canada." Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 29(4):

59 References Smith, David Horton Participation in Social and Political Activities: A Comprehensive Analysis of Political Involvement, Expressive Leisure Time, and Helping Behavior. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Smith, David Horton Participation in Social and Political Activities: A Comprehensive Analysis of Political Involvement, Expressive Leisure Time, and Helping Behavior. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Tang, Fengyan "What Resources Are Needed for Volunteerism? A Life Course Perspective." Journal of Applied Gerontology 25(5): Tang, Fengyan "What Resources Are Needed for Volunteerism? A Life Course Perspective." Journal of Applied Gerontology 25(5): Thoits, Peggy A., and Lyndi N. Hewitt "Volunteer Work and Well- being." Journal of Health & Social Behavior 42: Thoits, Peggy A., and Lyndi N. Hewitt "Volunteer Work and Well- being." Journal of Health & Social Behavior 42: Wheeler, Judith A., Kevin M. Gorey, and Bernard Greenblatt "The Beneficial Effect of Volunteering for Older Volunteers and the People They Serve: A Meta-analysis." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 47(1): Wheeler, Judith A., Kevin M. Gorey, and Bernard Greenblatt "The Beneficial Effect of Volunteering for Older Volunteers and the People They Serve: A Meta-analysis." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 47(1): Wilson, John, and Marc A. Musick "Work and Volunteering: The Long Arm of the Job." Social Forces 76(1): Wilson, John, and Marc A. Musick "Work and Volunteering: The Long Arm of the Job." Social Forces 76(1): Wilson, John, and Marc A. Musick. 1999a. "Attachment to Volunteering." Sociological Forum 14(2): Wilson, John, and Marc A. Musick. 1999a. "Attachment to Volunteering." Sociological Forum 14(2): Wilson, John "Volunteering." Annual Review of Sociology 26: Wilson, John "Volunteering." Annual Review of Sociology 26:

60 Welcome to further queries Tit-wing Lo: Chau-kiu Cheung: City University of Hong Kong 60

61 Completion, resource exhaustion (negative impact) Volunteering competence × Volunteering duration Volunteering competence × Volunteering duration  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance Volunteering performance × Volunteering duration Volunteering performance × Volunteering duration  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance Olympic volunteer × Volunteering duration Olympic volunteer × Volunteering duration  Volunteering endurance  Volunteering endurance 61


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