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Janet Palmer Hafler, Ed.D. Director of Faculty Development Office of Educational Development Harvard Medical School H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL © 2005 JPH
— Tyler, 1949 H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL 1. What are the school’s educational purposes? 2. Which learning experiences will be useful to achieve those purposes? 3. How can those experiences be organized for effective instruction? 4. How can their effectiveness be evaluated? Tyler’s Four Questions © 2005 JPH
L E A R N I N G Learning is enhanced when learners actively participate in setting educational goals T wo M ain P rinciples Feedback is necessary for learning
H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL Goals: have students acquire — √ a knowledge base characterized by breadth depth flexibility √ skills in the acquisition and use of knowledge with a commitment to life-long learning √ sensitivity to the world of the patient © 2005 JPH
W H Y T H O S E G O A L S ? — Students become active learners — Students & faculty interact closely — Approach adapts well to rapid advances in knowledge — Approach adapts well to deluge of information H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL © 2005 JPH
Learning Defined — L earning is a process where: faced with a need to broaden an under- standing or guide future action, a prior interpretation as to the meaning of one’s experience is used to construct a new or revised interpretation of meaning. H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL © 2005 JPH
P edagogical C onflict — o “What to Think” o “How to Think” H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL © 2005 JPH
C OURSES ARE I NTERDISCIPLINARY H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL © 2005 JPH
H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL > Tutorials > Lectures > Laboratories > Conferences > Protected Study Time F O R M A T S — © 2005 JPH
H M S T Y P I C A L W E E K © 2005 JPH
Opening Synthesis Discussion Problem-Based Learning The Three Phases P ROBLEM - B ASED L EARNING © 2005 JPH
In Tutorials ( INDEPENDENT STUDY ) P ROBLEM - B ASED L EARNING Tutorial I Tutorial II Tutorial III ( INDEPENDENT STUDY ) © 2005 JPH
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Characteristics Of the Tutoring Process Questions and probes reasoning process Encourages student direction of tutorials Promotes the synthesis of multiple disciplinary perspectives © 2005 JPH
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Characteristics Of the Tutoring Process Encourages critical appraisal of information Facilitates and supports good interpersonal relationships in the group © 2005 JPH
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Characteristics Of the Tutoring Process (cont.) Provides opportunity for frequent feedback Helps students balance basic science and clinical application in problem discussion © 2005 JPH
H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL F e e d b a c k necessary for learning © 2005 JPH
Five steps in Feedback — 1. Set goals with learner 2. Ask the student for an assessment of his or her own progress 3. Give feedback using specific examples 4. Discuss and plan changes together 5. Agree on a re-evaluation plan H ARVARD M EDICAL S CHOOL © 2005 JPH
C ompetence What one can do on tests M ETHODS OF A SSESSMENT and P erformance What one actually does in practice © 2005 JPH
M ID - & E ND-OF-COURSE E VALUATION M ETHODS OF A SSESSMENT 1. Knowledge acquisition 2. Problem solving & Critical thinking 3. Preparation and participation 4. Personal and interpersonal development © 2005 JPH
M ETHODS OF A SSESSMENT Oral Exams Essay Exams Multiple Choice Triple Jump Simulations Narratives T Y P E S OF A S S E S S M E N T © 2005 JPH
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