Introduction I. Attention Getter II. Topic Statement III. Establish Credibility IV. Preview Main Points
Attention Getter Catches, hooks, and interests the audience Using a prop to show something important about a particular debate Stating a shocking statistic Telling a dramatic story Asking a rhetorical question (but not one that people will feel like they need to answer; also avoid asking questions like “how many people agree/disagree with…”)
Topic Statement State your topic State your stand Be clear, be concise Today I will be speaking to you about just how wrong the death penalty is. Today I will be speaking to you about just how necessary the death penalty is.
Establish Credibility be specific Why are you an expert on this topic now? Be specific. My personal experiences with bullying have shown me the horrors of this criminal act. Furthermore, articles written by Genie Howe and Keven Tyler support the fact that bullying is indeed a crime. Despite the fact that some critics, such as Jennifer Hoxie, may disagree, each point can be counter argued by the following…
Preview Statement State your main points You should have at least 2 claims, and you should refute at least 1 counterclaim for this assignment Everyone should be required to server two years in the military after graduation because it would help keep our country protected and provide a well-disciplined work force for the future. Even though some people claim that this would violate our freedoms, it would actually protect our freedoms and our rights.
Basic Information simple explanation of your topic give a definition of your topic ** required element of the speech.
Persuasive Approaches 1. Deductive Reasoning: going from a general idea to a specific idea (syllogisms) If all will agree with the first general statement and the second still general statement, then they must agree with the last statement, which in the case of the speech is your opinion on the topic. 2. Inductive Reasoning: Going from a specific idea to a general one usually using the laws of probability. Over the last 35 years gold has decreased in value by 5% each year, therefore it is logical to induce that gold will continue to decrease in value. The final statement should be your stand on the topic.
Persuasive Approaches 3. Carrot-Stick - gives both sides of the issue and shows that one side clearly outweighs the other. List both pros and cons in the speech Be careful to list them all, so you are not destroyed in the Q&A portion. Pro/con list in decision making process 4. Primacy/Recency - dictates where you will put your strongest argument in the body of the speech. Start with your strongest point, end with your weakest. (anti- climatic) Start with your weakest point, end with your strongest (climatic)
What Evidence Is Appropriate? Statistics Testimony (a direct quote from an authority on the issue) Personal Testimony – (telling us about something that specifically happened to you). This is GREAT because it helps the audience connect emotionally. Deanchoring Beliefs – (appeal to the audience’s emotions to change their minds.) Fear is the most common emotion to appeal to. Psychiatrists say adults share 3 basic fears: the fear of losing food, shelter and clothing the fear of losing freedom the fear of the unknown - which includes death Other emotions are pride, sympathy/pity, anger, affection, guilt, etc.
Conclusion I. Summary – restate topic statement II. Concluding Remarks - make sure the audience knows the speech is over
Q&A Take questions from the whole group - not just the people you know Respond to the whole group – others may like to know the same thing Compliment the questioner - That's a great question, Thanks for asking, etc. Never reprimand the questioner - Well, if you had been listening or Well, that's a stupid question, etc.
Required elements For the speech itself 2 outside sources; both sides of the issue you chose Notes from the sources (see attached notes page) Works Cited with the sources Thorough outline (see attached) Appeal to pathos/logos/ethos Use of at least 2 rhetorical devices (questioning, parallel structure, restatement, repetition, antithesis) Minimum of 3 minutes in front of the class
Required elements During the presentations You must ask at least 1 substantial question to a classmate You must fill out the peer evaluations during/after the speeches Points are deducted for any disruptions during the speeches