Presentation on theme: "Polk & the Mexican-American War Please pick up Class Notes #17 from the cart. Remember to turn in your Civil War exhibit by 4:30 p.m. today. We will: *identify."— Presentation transcript:
Polk & the Mexican-American War Please pick up Class Notes #17 from the cart. Remember to turn in your Civil War exhibit by 4:30 p.m. today. We will: *identify how President Polk expanded America’s borders westward to the Pacific in 1845-49 *research how and why America moved from compromise to Civil War in the years from 1850 to 1860
U.S. Presidents, 1829-1865 Warm-up – work with your partner to fill out the chart #7 #8 #9 #10#11 #12#13#14#15#16
U.S. Presidents, 1829-1865 Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 Democrat STRONG Martin Van Buren 1837-1841 Democrat WEAK William H. Harrison 1841 Whig NO CHANCE (?) John Tyler 1841-1845 Whig WEAK James K. Polk 1845-1849 Democrat STRONG
U.S. Presidents, 1829-1865 Zachary Taylor 1849-1850 Whig WEAK Millard Fillmore 1850-1853 Whig WEAK Franklin Pierce 1853-1857 Democrat WEAK James Buchanan 1857-1861 Democrat WEAK Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 Republican STRONG
Polk Becomes President James K. Polk campaigned against Whig Party candidate Henry Clay in the 1844 presidential election. He won on a platform of promising to expand America’s borders westward. Polk was a protégé of Andrew Jackson and favored the expansion of slavery westward. Soon after becoming president in 1845, Polk pressed for the annexation of Texas despite protests from the Mexican government. Texas joined as a slave state in December 1845.
Oregon Treaty Believing that war with Mexico was inevitable, Polk sought to peacefully resolve the dispute over the Oregon Country with Great Britain. He used popular support for war, characterized by the slogan “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” to pressure Britain for a treaty in 1846 that split the territory in two along the 49 th parallel. Three states eventually emerged from this territory: *Washington*Oregon*Idaho
Mexican-American War (1846-1848) After Mexico rejected his offer for purchasing California and New Mexico, Polk provoked a war by ordering General Zachary Taylor to move his army into the disputed land between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers in southern Texas. The war resulted in a victory for U.S. forces. General Winfield Scott led an invasion that resulted in occupation of Mexico City by American forces by September 1847. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 resulted in Mexico’s cession of a third of its territory to the U.S., including the future states of : *California*Nevada*Arizona *Utah*part of New Mexico*part of Colorado
The California Gold Rush http://10.120.2.41/SAFARI/montage/play.php?frompage=play&keyindex=117512&location= 005849&chapterskeyindex=376416&sceneclipskeyindex=-1 http://10.120.2.41/SAFARI/montage/play.php?frompage=play&keyindex=117512&location= 005849&chapterskeyindex=376416&sceneclipskeyindex=-1 In 1848, the California Gold Rush began and thousands of Americans moved west in an effort to get rich quick.
Opposition to Polk’s War Many Northerners refused to support the war, blaming it on the “slave power” in American politics. Henry David Thoreau refused to pay his taxes in protest and wrote his most famous essay, “On Civil Disobedience”, that inspired later generations of Americans, including Martin Luther King, Jr. Both Democratic and Whig congressmen supported the Wilmot Proviso of 1846 that called on President Polk to prevent the expansion of slavery into any territory acquired from Mexico. The war re-opened the debate over slavery that had been closed by the Missouri Compromise.
Compromise of 1850 (see focus #18) California’s petition for admission as a free state precipitated a national crisis over the issue of slavery President Zachary Taylor (Whig-LA) proposed “popular sovereignty” as a way of avoiding a crisis – leave the decision on slave or free status to the states themselves Henry Clay (Whig-KY) proposed a five-part compromise: 1. California admitted as a free state 2. creation of New Mexico and Utah territories with no federal restrictions on slavery (new states to decide for themselves) 3. awarding of territory by Texas to New Mexico in exchange for federal assumption of Texas debts 4.abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia 5.a stronger fugitive slave law
The Compromise Raises Tensions Henry Clay defending the compromise on the floor of the Senate, 1850 Clay & Daniel Webster (Whig-MA) eloquently defended the compromise John C. Calhoun (Democrat – SC) condemned it and warned that it would lead to civil war within a decade All three “giants” of the Senate passed away within a year Stephen Douglas (D – IL) took up Clay’s cause and steered the compromise through Congress
Who won the most from the Compromise of 1850 – North or South? How did Northerners and Southerners react to the Compromise of 1850?
How did the United States move from compromise to Civil War between 1850 and 1860? Working with your table team, create a poster/presentation on your assigned event listed below: 1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin/Fugitive Slave Actpp. 310-12 2. Kansas-Nebraska Actpp. 312-15 3. Bleeding Kansaspp. 315-17 4. Dred Scott v. Sandfordpp. 324-25, 332-33 5. Lincoln-Douglas Debatespp. 325-27 6. Raid on Harpers Ferrypp. 327-28 Each poster needs to include a description of the event and how it raised tensions between North and South, as well as a visual - be prepared to present to the class on Friday
Before we leave… Pick up a copy of Quiz #4 – it’s a take-home quiz and you will fill in the answers on a Scantron at the start of class on Friday Remember that ALL “Young Republic” unit make-up materials are due by Friday – determines your eligibility for the unit test retake and quiz #3 retake grade Exhibits due by 4:30 p.m. today