Presentation on theme: "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute November 26, 2013 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green."— Presentation transcript:
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute November 26, 2013 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green
Objectives: explain the spirit and meaning of the Manifest Destiny that inspired American expansionism in the 1840s. Outline the major conflicts between Britain and the United States over debts, Maine, Canada, Texas, Oregon, and growing British hostility to slavery. Explain why the U.S. government increasingly saw the independent Texas Republic as a threat and sought to pursue annexation AP Focus A member of the Democratic Party, John Tyler, becomes the Whig’s vice-presidential candidate in 1840. When President William Henry Harrison dies just one month into his term, Tyler, much to the distress of Whig party loyalists, such as Henry Clay, is elevated to the presidency. Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States is divinely inspired to spread across the continent, becomes the rationale for widespread territorial expansion. Critics repudiate it as nothing short of unbridled imperialism.
CHAPTER THEMES American expansionism gained momentum in the 1840s, leading first to the acquisition of Texas and Oregon, and then to the Mexican War, which added vast southwestern territories to the United States and ignited the slavery question American international prestige grows as the United States expands. Successful military campaigns against Mexico along with well- negotiated treaties with Britain force Europe to respect America more, while Latin America begins to be wary of the Colossus of the North.
Mexican War Chart-Due on Tuesday Decades Chart 1840’s-Due on Tuesday Quiz on Chapter 16 on Tuesday
Harrison dies 4 weeks into his presidency Tyler accused of being a Democrat in Whig clothes Whig Party was 1. pro-bank 2. pro-protective tariff 3. pro-internal improvements Whig Congress pushed: 1. Ended independent treasury system-signed 2. Fiscal Bank-vetoed 3. Fiscal Corporation-vetoed 4. Tariff-vetoed 5. Tariff of 1842-signed entire cabinet resigned except Daniel Webster serious attempt to impeach
Travelers thumbed their noses at America Authors denied royalties without a copyright law America a borrower nation England a lender nation Caroline incident-1837 American steamer carried supplies to insurgents fighting in Canada for freedom British force attacked the Caroline-1 American dead 3 years later, state of New York tried one Canadian- found innocent Britain wanted war if he was found guilty Creole incident-1841 British officials in the Bahamas offered asylum for 130 Virginia slaves that captured the Creole
Aroostook War Fight over Maine boundary U.S. retained 7,000 of 12,000 disputed square miles as the Canadian border was set further west, iron ore was discovered later in the Mesabi Range of Minnesota
Texas has quasi-independence since 1836 Mexico refused to recognize its independence 2 half-hearted attempts at reclaiming Texas talks to France, Holland and Belgium Britain interested in an independent Texas 1. buffer 2. Challenge Monroe Doctrine 3. Fragment and militarize America 4. Free-trade location 5. Cotton
Texas became issue in the 1844 election James K. Polk-Democrat, wins Instead of Treaty, Tyler calls for joint resolution that requires a majority, not 2/3 Tyler signs annexation 3 days before he leaves office Mexico angry over Americans annexation- claimed they stole it from them. Texas was independent since 1836 9 year wait-is this long enough??
America disputed with Britain over area north of the Columbia River. The U.S. population was far greater than Britain’s in this disputed area.
Whigs-Henry Clay received 105 electoral votes Democrats-James K. Polk received 170 electoral votes Manifest Destiny-Oregon, Texas Tariff slavery Bank internal improvements
James K. Polk-The 4 point program 1. Lower tariffs-Walker Tariff 2. Restore the independent treasury 3. Acquisition of California 4. Settlement of the Oregon dispute Did not follow the 54 forty or fight “Great Britain is powerful and Mexico is weak” Senator Benton, MO
California in 1845 13,000 Spanish Mexicans 75,000 Native Americans <1,000 foreigners (Americans) Polk wanted to buy California from Mexico Once the U.S. acquired Texas, Mexico ended diplomatic relations Dispute over the southern boundary, the Rio Grande or Nueces River Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to offer 25 million for California, but was not received Rumor was Britain was about to acquire California
Polk dispatched General Zachary Taylor to march from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande- provocatively near Mexican forces No clash started by May 9, 1846 and he wanted to declare war on 2 grounds: 1. unpaid claims 2. Slidell’s rejection April 25, 1846-Mexico kills/wounds 16 Americans Congressman Lincoln wanted to know the spot on American soil where American blood had been shed.
Did Polk provoke war? California important Keep away from Britain Grievances against Mexico Teach Mexico a lesson Mexico wanted to humiliate the bullies to the North
Begin reading all of Chapter 17 Charts due on Thursday.