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Spatial Database Systems Tyler Reainthong CSE 7330 Fall 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Spatial Database Systems Tyler Reainthong CSE 7330 Fall 2009."— Presentation transcript:


2 Spatial Database Systems Tyler Reainthong CSE 7330 Fall 2009

3 Topics Definitions Storage and Indexing Spatial Relationships Spatial Queries Standards Systems Applications and the Future

4 What is a Spatial Database? Database that models space, objects in space, or a combination of both Provide capabilities to store and manipulate spatial data as well as find various interactions between them

5 What is a Spatial Database? (cont) Uses spatial data types (SDTs) and spatial indexes Uses spatial queries which are able to work with the spatial data types Usually provides these capabilities as an extension to a standard RDBMS

6 What is Spatial Data? Each vendor’s implementation will consist of different spatial data types Each type can be abstracted to basic geometric primitives which consist of: –Points –Lines –Polygons/Regions

7 What is Spatial Data? (cont) Point –Can define locations of interest –Used when you do not care about the extent of the object –Can be used to define “space” Land Map boundaries Grids

8 What is Spatial Data? (cont) Line –Can be straight, arcing or a combination of both –Can be used to define movement and connections between spatial objects

9 What is Spatial Data? (cont) Polygon/Region –Basic shapes (box, square, triangle, etc.) –May have holes

10 Spatial Data Types (SDTs) Spatial Data Types often referred to as “geometries” can either be defined as one or more spatial data primitive types Example Oracle Spatial SDO_GTYPE: Source:

11 Spatial Storage Creating a normal table with an additional spatial column in Oracle Spatial Source:

12 Spatial Indexing R-Trees –Similar to B-trees but allow indexing for multidimensional data –Creates minimum bounding boxes that essentially partition the spatial data into hierarchical rectangular shaped boxes –These boxes provide rough approximations of the geometries which optimizes query performance

13 Spatial Indexing (cont) Example R-Tree Source:

14 Spatial Indexing (cont) Quad-Trees –Recursively divide space into four quadrants Source:

15 Spatial Relationships Spatial relationships can be categorized into three different types –Topological relationships Contains, Inside, Covers, Adjacent, Touch, Disjoint –Directional relationships Above, Below, West of, East of –Metric relationships Distances between two geometries Each vendor may or may not implement certain relationships as a function

16 Spatial Relationships (cont) Oracle Spatial supports the following relationships Source: %20Topobase%202010%20User%20Documentation/images/IS D/Everest-ALL/English/pic_admin_oracle_spatial.png %20Topobase%202010%20User%20Documentation/images/IS D/Everest-ALL/English/pic_admin_oracle_spatial.png

17 Spatial Queries SQL can work with spatial data types Spatial operators and functions can also be used with SQL

18 Spatial Queries (cont) Spatial Query Examples in PostGIS Source:

19 Spatial Queries (cont) Spatial Query Examples in PostGIS Source:

20 Standards and Specifications Standards and specifications governed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) –http://www.opengeospatial.org Defines standard Geographic Information Systems (GIS) object types, functions associated with them, and metadata tables –Simple Feature Access Architecture

21 Some Spatial DBMS Systems Oracle Spatial PostgreSQL with PostGIS extension MySQL Microsoft SQL Server 2008 IBM DB2 with Spatial Extender

22 Applications and the Future GIS/Mapping CAD and GIS integration Location based services Spatial data is becoming ubiquitous –Environmental –Health sectors –Agricultural –Geological –Hazard management –Military and intelligence

23 Bibliography 78&CFTOKEN=48744014 78&CFTOKEN=48744014 9.htm 9.htm ocumentation/index.html?url=WS73099cc142f48755b0eae110a8ea4f1d98a3.htm,topicNumber=d0 e17737 ocumentation/index.html?url=WS73099cc142f48755b0eae110a8ea4f1d98a3.htm,topicNumber=d0 e17737

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