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2 CURRICULUM PROCEDURE Videos\How will you teach me in the 21st century.avi

3 T HE CURRICULUM PROCESS The development of a curriculum involves the developer in decisions about the nature and appropriateness of the substantive elements, e.g. the: outcomes content method assessment strategies These decisions are made in relation to the context in which the curriculum will operate.


5 A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM MODELS Rational/objectives models: Ralph Tyler Hilda Taba

6 Tyler's Objective Model (also called the Rational Model) This model takes curriculum as a means of aiming toward an educational objective. Therefore, this model is also called means–objective model.

7 E.g. With the K to 12 Health curriculum, a learner should be able to achieve, sustain and promote lifelong and wellness. The program’s rich and challenging learning experiences promote the development of the macro skills of practicing desirable health habits.

8 It answers the following questions: What is the object of education ? What teaching experience that we have to provide in order to achieve educational object? How to effectively organize the educational experience ? How can we know whether these objects have achieved? (How to evaluate? )

9 The Objectives Model:

10 Cons of the Tyler Model The objective has a behavioural orientation. Behavioural objectives have many advantages if applied to curriculum design, but they have some limitations on execution.

11 For example, they do not apply to all subjects or the design of a subject’s content. Unacceptable verbs are as follow: to know, to understand, to really understand, to appreciate, to fully appreciate, to grasp the significance of, to enjoy, to believe and to have faith in.

12 Building behavioural objectives takes a very long time and a very tedious process.

13 Besides, this model narrows the span of knowledge and skills which the students must actually be familiar with.

14 Pros of the Tyler Model Notable for being the 1st model of objectives for teaching. Examples of the acceptable verbs are: (Students will be able) to write, to recite, to identify, to differentiate, to solve, to construct, to list, to compare and to contrast, etc

15 A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM MODELS Cyclical models: Wheeler Nichols

16 What is cyclic model of curriculum? Cyclical Model includes elements from both the rational and dynamic models ; But is basically an extension of the rational models which are essentially logical and sequential in approach.

17 In the Cyclical Models, curriculum is a continuous cycle responding to the changes within education where any new information or practice will bring changes.

18 Cyclical models undertake situational analysis whereby the context or situation in which curriculum decisions are to be taken is thoroughly studied. This helps curriculum developers take correct decisions thus encouraging active participation of staffs in school based curriculum.

19 cyclic model of curriculum

20 Strengths of Cyclical Model Provide logical sequence ; Provide baseline data for objectives ; Able to cope with changing circumstances ; Provide flexibility (and relevant to school situations and more appropriate to cur dev by teachers)

21 Weaknesses of cyclical model It is difficult to locate ; It is not different from objective model since it adopts logical sequence; It takes time to undertake an effective situational analysis

22 A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM MODELS Dynamic/interaction models : Walker Skilbeck

23 Dynamic/interaction model


25 Strengths of dynamic model Curriculum developer can begin with any of the elements; The model allows cur developer to change the order of planning (to move to and fro amongst the cur elements) The model offers flexibility

26 Weaknesses of dynamic model The model does not necessarily specify objectives ; The model offers so little direction ; The cur developers need a lot of time to determine the beginning stage in cur dev

27 Samples of Curriculum Sample Curriculum- marillac hs.docx HEALTH-K-12-Curriculum-Guide.pdf

28 “ Curriculum Development” A dynamic Process Some basic facts As teachers we are not free to teach any topic we choose, Rather: We are guided by national, local and/or institutional standards that specify what students should know and be able to do;

29 These standards provide framework to help us identify teaching and learning priorities and guide our design of curriculum and assessment

30 Shift of paradigm from focusing on teaching to focusing on Learning ; “if your students are not learning, you are not teaching” Curriculum is used as a “means” to an “end”


32 Curriculum Development Is a systematic, logical and dynamic process for achieving organized learning ; It allows educators to: Articulate characteristics of: Graduates (prior knowledge, experience, professional goals, expectations); Curriculum design; Content; Teaching Method; Assessment of student’s achievement; and Program Evaluation

33 W HY SHOULD WE CONSIDER VARIOUS MODELS ? To keep the educational system up-to-date with prevailing advancements in various subjects; To reduce the gap between actual output and required output; To adopt blended mode of education; To offer more meaningful education; To offer international standard so that credit transfers, student, faculty exchange program can take place.

34 Curriculum, defined as a Structured Series of Intended Learning Outcomes; Written Total Plan for Education of Learners for which Action to be taken. Domains of Curriculum consists of Curriculum Development Curriculum Design

35 C URRICULUM M ODEL Curriculum Model is defined as a plan of action that can be employed to structure a subject or knowledge area from a theory into practice.

36 V ARIOUS C URRICULUM M ODELS Curriculum Design in a Context of Widening Participation in Higher Education; New Design to face the challenges of 21 st century; Differentiated curriculum model; Integrating Information Literacy into the Higher Education Curriculum; Interdisciplinary curriculum model; Internationalizing the Higher Education Curriculum:

37 Using a Learning Outcome-Led Model Prescriptive & Descriptive models iCarnegie's dynamic curriculum delivery model Transformative curriculum model Model based on faculty-driven processes and practices through dept initiatives Inquiry based model

38 According to Duncan McCallum, the deputy academic secretary at the University of Cambridge, “A good curriculum should engage and challenge the student”. Videos\Reflecting on the Curriculum A Digital Story.avi

39 N EW D ESIGN TO FACE THE CHALLENGES OF 21 ST CENTURY. The new design should take into account Learning Environment; Learning Process; Learning Reward; Design Process

40 Thank You…

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