Presentation on theme: "CURRICULUM PROCEDURE Videos\How will you teach me in the 21st century .avi."— Presentation transcript:
1CURRICULUMPROCEDUREVideos\How will you teach me in the 21st century .avi
2The curriculum process The development of a curriculum involves the developer in decisions about the nature and appropriateness of the substantive elements, e.g. the:outcomescontentmethodassessment strategiesThese decisions are made in relation to the context in which the curriculum will operate.
4A continuum of curriculum models Rational/objectives models:Ralph TylerHilda Taba
5Tyler's Objective Model (also called the Rational Model)This model takes curriculum as a means of aiming toward an educational objective.Therefore, this model is also called means–objective model.
6E.g.With the K to 12 Health curriculum, a learner should be able to achieve, sustain and promote lifelong and wellness.The program’s rich and challenging learning experiences promote the development of the macro skills of practicing desirable health habits.
7It answers the following questions: What is the object of education?What teaching experience that we have to provide in order to achieve educational object?How to effectively organize the educational experience?How can we know whether these objects have achieved? (How to evaluate? )
9The objective has a behavioural orientation. Cons of the Tyler ModelThe objective has a behavioural orientation.Behavioural objectives have many advantages if applied to curriculum design, but they have some limitations on execution.
10to grasp the significance of, to enjoy, to believe and For example, they do not apply to all subjects or the design of a subject’s content.Unacceptable verbs are as follow:to know,to understand,to really understand,to appreciate,to fully appreciate,to grasp the significance of,to enjoy,to believe andto have faith in.
11Building behavioural objectives takes a very long time and a very tedious process.
12Besides, this model narrows the span of knowledge and skills which the students must actually be familiar with.
13Notable for being the 1st model of objectives for teaching. Pros of the Tyler ModelNotable for being the 1st model of objectives for teaching.Examples of the acceptable verbs are:(Students will be able) to write, to recite, to identify, to differentiate, to solve, to construct, to list, to compare and to contrast, etc
14A continuum of curriculum models Cyclical models:WheelerNichols
15What is cyclic model of curriculum? Cyclical Model includes elements from both the rational and dynamic models;But is basically an extension of the rational models which are essentially logical and sequential in approach.
16In the Cyclical Models, curriculum is a continuous cycle responding to the changes within education where any new information or practice will bring changes.
17Cyclical models undertake situational analysis whereby the context or situation in which curriculum decisions are to be taken is thoroughly studied.This helps curriculum developers take correct decisions thus encouraging active participation of staffs in school based curriculum.
19Strengths of Cyclical Model Provide logical sequence;Provide baseline data for objectives;Able to cope with changing circumstances;Provide flexibility (and relevant to school situations and more appropriate to cur dev by teachers)Strengths of Cyclical ModelProvide logical sequence;Provide baseline data for objectives;Able to cope with changing circumstances;Provide flexibility (and relevant to school situations and more appropriate to cur dev by teachers
20Weaknesses of cyclical model It is difficult to locate;It is not different from objective model since it adopts logical sequence;It takes time to undertake an effective situational analysisWeaknesses of cyclical modelIt is difficult to locate;It is not different from objective model since it adopts logical sequence;It takes time to undertake an effective situational analysis
21A continuum of curriculum models Dynamic/interaction models :WalkerSkilbeck
24Strengths of dynamic model Curriculum developer can begin with any of the elements;The model allows cur developer to change the order of planning (to move to and fro amongst the cur elements)The model offers flexibilityStrengths of dynamic modelCurriculum developer can begin with any of the elements;The model allows cur developer to change the order of planning (to move to and fro amongst the cur elements)The model offers flexibility
25Weaknesses of dynamic model The model does not necessarily specify objectives;The model offers so little direction;The cur developers need a lot of time to determine the beginning stage in cur devWeaknesses of dynamic modelThe model does not necessarily specify objectives;The model offers so little direction;The cur developers need a lot of time to determine the beginning stage in cur dev
26Sample Curriculum- marillac hs.docx HEALTH-K-12-Curriculum-Guide.pdf Samples of CurriculumSample Curriculum- marillac hs.docxHEALTH-K-12-Curriculum-Guide.pdfSamples of Curriculum
27“Curriculum Development” A dynamic ProcessSome basic facts• As teachers we are not free to teach any topic we choose,Rather:• We are guided by national, local and/or institutional standards that specify what students should know and beable to do;
28• These standards provide framework to help us identify teaching and learning priorities and guide our design of curriculum and assessment
29Shift of paradigm from focusing on teaching to focusing on Learning; • “if your students are not learning, you are not teaching”• Curriculum is used as a “means” to an “end”
31Curriculum Development Is a systematic, logical and dynamic process for achieving organized learning;It allows educators to:Articulate characteristics of:Graduates (prior knowledge, experience, professional goals, expectations);Curriculum design;Content;Teaching Method;Assessment of student’s achievement;and Program EvaluationCurriculum DevelopmentIs a systematic, logical and dynamic process for achieving organized learning;It allows educators to:Articulate characteristics of:Graduates (prior knowledge, experience, professional goals, expectations);Curriculum design;Content;Teaching Method;Assessment of student’s achievement;And Program Evaluation
32Why should we consider various models? To keep the educational system up-to-date with prevailing advancements in various subjects;To reduce the gap between actual output and required output;To adopt blended mode of education;To offer more meaningful education;To offer international standard so that credit transfers, student, faculty exchange program can take place.
33Curriculum, defined as a Structured Series of Intended Learning Outcomes;Written Total Plan for Education of Learners for which Action to be taken.Domains of Curriculum consists ofCurriculum DevelopmentCurriculum Design
34Curriculum ModelCurriculum Model is defined as a plan of action that can be employed to structure a subject or knowledge area from a theory into practice.
35Various Curriculum Models Curriculum Design in a Context of Widening Participation in Higher Education;New Design to face the challenges of 21st century;Differentiated curriculum model;Integrating Information Literacy into the Higher Education Curriculum;Interdisciplinary curriculum model;Internationalizing the Higher Education Curriculum:
36Using a Learning Outcome-Led Model Prescriptive & Descriptive modelsiCarnegie's dynamic curriculum delivery modelTransformative curriculum modelModel based on faculty-driven processes and practices through dept initiativesInquiry based model
37“A good curriculum should engage and challenge the student”. According to Duncan McCallum, the deputy academic secretary at the University of Cambridge,“A good curriculum should engage and challenge the student”.Videos\Reflecting on the Curriculum A Digital Story.avi
38New Design to face the challenges of 21st century. The new design should take into accountLearning Environment;Learning Process;Learning Reward;Design Process