2Manifest Destiny What was it? What caused it? Belief that the United States was “destined” to settle the entire North American continent from Atlantic to Pacific OceansWhat caused it?Louisiana Purchase—made the possibility of coast to coast settlement realistic for the first timeEconomic motives—more land to be settled by farmers, lots of natural resources to be exploited by othersRacial motives—belief that European Americans were racially superior to the American Indians/Mexicans who currently occupied the WestReligious motives—God wanted the US to spread its divinely inspired government, civilization, and Protestant religion to the uncivilized west
3Focus of US Westward Expansion 1830-1848 Texas, Oregon, CaliforniaAmerican Expansion into Texas1820s Mexico gained its independence from Spain1823 Mexican govt began offering large tracts of land in Texas to American settlers who agreed to populate the area (Stephen Austin),000 Americans living in TexasAmerican-Mexican tensionsSlavery, religion, illegal immigration, local governance1835 self government for Texas repealed1836 Independence declared, war for independence 1836Texas as independent countryWhy no immediate US annexation in 1836?Became issue in 1844 election
5Oregon and California Oregon Country California Area of modern day Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British ColumbiaOriginally claimed by Spain, Britain, US, and Russia—by 1820s only US and Britain1840s American immigration to Oregon increased rapidly1846 5,000 Americans living in Oregon Country, not that many BritishBecame election issue in 1844CaliforniaCalifornia was sparsely populated by Mexican citizensHome to lots of good farmland and valuable portsUS wanted to buy California from Mexico
7Politics 1840-1844: Tyler and Polk William Henry Harrison (Whig) elected 1840John Tyler became President 1841President without a party—didn’t get along with the WhigsExpelled from the Whig partyElection of 1844James k. Polk (Democrat) “Who is James K. Polk?”Expansion: pro-annexation of Texas, pro-annexation of Oregon, pro-annexation of CaliforniaHenry Clay (Whig)Anti-expansion: build up the land that the US currently has, afraid of the debate over the spread of slaveryPolk won by a large marginTyler—annexed Texas in his last weeks in office 1845
8Polk Presidency Goals of Polk Annexation Texas—completed by Tyler before Polk took officeLower tariffs—achieved in 1846Renew of the independent treasury (Democratic party’s alternative to the national bank)—achieved in 1846Annexation of OregonPolk threatened war with Britain, “54-40 or Fight!” (all of modern day British Columbia)Settled at the 49th parallel—modern US-Canada borderSo no and no fight eitherAnnex CaliforniaPolk wanted to buy California from Mexico, but the Mexicans weren’t selling, why?Polk’s other options??
9Mexican American War 1846-1848 Causes Start of War War 1846-1848 Polk wanted to take control of CaliforniaDisputes between US and Mexico over the Texas borderMexico upset about US annexation of TexasStart of WarPolk sent soldiers to disputed zone between US and MexicoSoldiers stayed there until Mexicans attacked—several weeks“American blood on American soil!”Small but important opposition to the war—conscience WhigsWar Declared 1846WarUS quickly conquered California—Fremont, New Mexico—Kearny, and most of Mexico—Zachary Taylor and Winfield ScottPeace treaty—Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)—ended the war
11Impact of Mexican American War US gained almost all of the modern day American southwestModern-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, OklahomaUS gained access to all the raw materials and natural resources in those areas (what was discovered in California in ?)Damaged US-Mexican relations until the present dayHow do you think Mexicans think of this war?Should this war alter our attitudes toward immigration into the Southwest from Mexico?“Dress rehearsal” for the Civil WarKey figures in Mexican American War would be the key figures in the Civil War as wellMost importantly—would set off a chain of events that would help divide the country and lead to the Civil War in 1861Question: Would there be slavery in the newly acquired territories?