Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17. Clay and Webster’s presumptuous assumption. ◦ Webster was Sec. of State. Clay the leader of the party in Congress. Harrison’s reaction."— Presentation transcript:
Clay and Webster’s presumptuous assumption. ◦ Webster was Sec. of State. Clay the leader of the party in Congress. Harrison’s reaction Clay leads party in power and is ready to finally put his policies into law Harrison dies 40 days into presidency. Tyler takes over. Wm. Henry Harrison Shortest Term of any President.
First vice president to take over for a president who died in office. Why is he on the ticket. Tyler is an old-school Virginian. Why did he leave the Democratic Party for the Whigs? Part of the minority wing of the Whig party that adhered to State’s rights. His views are quite different from Clay and Webster.
Unofficial platform of the majority of the party Tyler’s views on unofficial platform Whigs accuse him of being a Democrat in Whig clothing Another defeat for Clay. Henry Clay: foiled again
Whigs try to get their agenda enacted into law. Repeal Independent Treasury. Passed. Second part: Renew the Bank of the US. ◦ Tyler’s reaction. “His Ascendancy” What do Whig’s do to Tyler? What does his cabinet do?
British-American relationship erupted in war of words in ◦ Causes? Caroline affair. Lumberjack war—Aroostook Valley, Maine. Maine boundary vague Webster-Ashburton treaty
Texas in a precarious position. US had spurned request for annexation. Mexico still claims Texas as its Territory, Threatened to take it back and threatened war with US if US annexed. Many European countries were courting Texas Britain especially was very interested. ◦ Why?
Texas becomes a leading issue in election of Dem. James K Polk vs. Whig Henry Clay. Democrats position. Whigs position. Polk wins. What does Tyler do as a result.. Mexico angry and accuses US of theft. Is Mexico right?
Oregon Territory: everything North of California, West of the Rockies up to Both US and Brit have claims to the Territory. Treaty of 1818: Joint occupation. In 1840s,Oregon Trail. ◦ 5000 American in Oregon by Brits had only 700 Only a small areas really in dispute. Columbia river north to the 49th Par.
Election of 1844 Clay (Whig) against James K. Polk (Dem.). James K Polk of Tenn. ◦ First “dark-horse” nominee ◦ Had been Speaker of the House and governor of Tenn. for two terms. ◦ Jackson sponsored him. ◦ Dems publicized him as a young Jackson. ◦ Southern expansionist
Dems expansionist. Platform was for annexation of Texas and taking Oregon all the way up to “54-40 or Fight” Dems campaigned on Manifest Destiny ◦ What is “Manifest Destiny” Whigs were mostly against annexation of Texas, equating it with an expansion of slavery, but Clay couldn’t win without votes in the south. ◦ He tried to be both for and against annexation, and his waffling hurt him Other issues: tariff, slavery, the bank and internal improvements.
Polk won in a close election. New York the key state. Clay lost there by 5000 because Liberty Party not split the vote. ◦ Why did Clay loose votes to Liberty Party? Tyler saw the election results as a mandate to annex Texas and started the ball rolling before he left office.
Polk not dynamic or impressive physically. Serious and worked very hard. Not brilliant, but was dogged, shrewd and well organized. Did not delegate much. Four-point program for his presidency Only one-term President to make the list of Top-10.
One: Reduced Tariff. Succeeded in reducing the tariff from 32 to 25%. Two: Restoration of Independent Treasury. Accomplished. Three: Settlement of Oregon. ◦ Polk and southern Dems. didn’t want all of Oregon, despite platform. Why? ◦ Brits recognize that they must compromise. Why? ◦ Brits agree to divide at 49 th Par.
Acquiring California Polk’s fourth goal. ◦ Why does he want it? US likely to get eventually through settlement, but Polk doesn’t want to wait. ◦ Why? Offers to buy from Mexico. Mexico doesn’t want to sell. ◦ Ongoing disputes with Mexico
Polk’s strategy to get Mexico? Continuing dispute with Mexico over border of Texas. Nueces or Rio Grande? Polk sends Zachery Taylor’s troops across the Nueces into disputed Terr. Mexican troops cross Rio Grande and attack Taylor. Polk asks for a declaration of war claiming that US troops attacked on “US” soil.
How did rivalry with Britain affect the American decision to annex Texas, the Oregon dispute, and lesser controversies of the period?
America catches war fever Spot resolution. ◦ What? ◦ Who? Many Whigs vehemently against the war. ◦ Why? Mexican’s spoiling for war, as well. ◦ Why? Assessing Polk’s actions
Santa Anna dupes the US Steven Kearny, Santa Fe 1846 John C. Fremont (Great Pathfinder), Bear Flag Rebellion Zachery Taylor defeats Santa Anna at Battle of Buena Vista Zachery Taylor
Polk leaves Taylor where he is. Why? Winfield Scott (“Old Fuss and Feathers”) Vera Cruz and March on Mexico City. One of the most brilliant campaigns in US history. Captures Mexico City. Scott hero during the war of Best general produced by US between Rev. War and Civil War.
2/2/1848. Terms? ◦ American title to Texas confirmed with Rio Grande the border. ◦ Mexico yielded Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada to US. (with Texas, is about ½ of Mexico.) Land referred to as Mexican Cession. ◦ US to pay 15 Million and assume claims of citizens there against Mexico worth about 3 Million. (18.5 Mill compared to 25 Mill. prepared to pay for Cal. before the war.)
Identify the short and long-term consequences of the war.
What caused the Mexican War? Did Polk provoke the Texas-boundary conflict in order to gain California or expand slavery, as war opponents like Lincoln charged? What were the benefits and costs of the Mexican War both immediately and in the longer run of American History?
Wilmot Proviso Mexican American War was the opening chapter on events that led to the Civil War because of the new territory added. Foreshadows the Civil War: ◦ Practice for military leaders ◦ More land to dispute over slavery