Presentation on theme: "MANIFEST DESTINY AND ITS LEGACY,"— Presentation transcript:
1MANIFEST DESTINY AND ITS LEGACY, 1841-1848 Chapter 17
2THE ACCESSION OF “TYLER TOO” Clay and Webster’s presumptuous assumption.Webster was Sec. of State. Clay the leader of the party in Congress.Harrison’s reactionClay leads party in power and is ready to finally put his policies into lawHarrison dies 40 days into presidency.Tyler takes over.Wm. Henry HarrisonShortest Term of any President.
3John TylerFirst vice president to take over for a president who died in office.Why is he on the ticket.Tyler is an old-school Virginian.Why did he leave the Democratic Party for the Whigs?Part of the minority wing of the Whig party that adhered to State’s rights.His views are quite different from Clay and Webster.
4Tyler at Odds with ClayUnofficial platform of the majority of the partyTyler’s views on unofficial platformWhigs accuse him of being a Democrat in Whig clothingAnother defeat for Clay.Henry Clay:foiled again
5John Tyler: A President Without A Party Whigs try to get their agenda enacted into law.Repeal Independent Treasury. Passed.Second part: Renew the Bank of the US.Tyler’s reaction.“His Ascendancy”What do Whig’s do to Tyler?What does his cabinet do?
6A War Of Words With England British-American relationship erupted in war of words inCauses?Caroline affair.Lumberjack war—Aroostook Valley, Maine. Maine boundary vagueWebster-Ashburton treaty
8Texas Shines Alone Texas in a precarious position. US had spurned request for annexation.Mexico still claims Texas as its Territory,Threatened to take it back and threatened war with US if US annexed.Many European countries were courting TexasBritain especially was very interested.Why?
9The Belated Texas Nuptials Texas becomes a leading issue in election ofDem. James K Polk vs. Whig Henry Clay.Democrats position.Whigs position.Polk wins.What does Tyler do as a result..Mexico angry and accuses US of theft.Is Mexico right?
10Oregon FeverOregon Territory: everything North of California, West of the Rockies up toBoth US and Brit have claims to the Territory.Treaty of 1818: Joint occupation.In 1840s,Oregon Trail.5000 American in Oregon by Brits had only 700Only a small areas really in dispute. Columbia river north to the 49th Par.
12A Mandate For Manifest Destiny Election of 1844 Clay (Whig) against James K. Polk (Dem.).James K Polk of Tenn.First “dark-horse” nomineeHad been Speaker of the House and governor of Tenn. for two terms.Jackson sponsored him.Dems publicized him as a young Jackson.Southern expansionist
13Issues in 1844Dems expansionist. Platform was for annexation of Texas and taking Oregon all the way up to “54-40 or Fight”Dems campaigned on Manifest DestinyWhat is “Manifest Destiny”Whigs were mostly against annexation of Texas, equating it with an expansion of slavery, but Clay couldn’t win without votes in the south.He tried to be both for and against annexation, and his waffling hurt himOther issues: tariff, slavery, the bank and internal improvements.
14Polk Wins Polk won in a close election. New York the key state. Clay lost there by 5000 because Liberty Party not split the vote.Why did Clay loose votes to Liberty Party?Tyler saw the election results as a mandate to annex Texas and started the ball rolling before he left office.
15Polk The Purposeful Polk not dynamic or impressive physically. Serious and worked very hard.Not brilliant, but was dogged, shrewd and well organized. Did not delegate much.Four-point program for his presidencyOnly one-term President to make the list of Top-10.
16Polk’s Four GoalsOne: Reduced Tariff. Succeeded in reducing the tariff from 32 to 25%.Two: Restoration of Independent Treasury. Accomplished.Three: Settlement of Oregon.Polk and southern Dems. didn’t want all of Oregon, despite platform. Why?Brits recognize that they must compromise.Why?Brits agree to divide at 49th Par.
17California Acquiring California Polk’s fourth goal. Why does he want it?US likely to get eventually through settlement, but Polk doesn’t want to wait.Why?Offers to buy from Mexico. Mexico doesn’t want to sell.Ongoing disputes with Mexico
18American Blood On American Soil Polk’s strategy to get Mexico?Continuing dispute with Mexico over border of Texas. Nueces or Rio Grande?Polk sends Zachery Taylor’s troops across the Nueces into disputed Terr.Mexican troops cross Rio Grande and attack Taylor.Polk asks for a declaration of war claiming that US troops attacked on “US” soil.
20Question:How did rivalry with Britain affect the American decision to annex Texas, the Oregon dispute, and lesser controversies of the period?
21Going to War America catches war fever Spot resolution. What?Who?Many Whigs vehemently against the war.Why?Mexican’s spoiling for war, as well.Assessing Polk’s actions
22Mexican-American War Santa Anna dupes the US Steven Kearny, Santa Fe 1846John C. Fremont (Great Pathfinder), Bear Flag RebellionZachery Taylor defeats Santa Anna at Battle of Buena VistaZachery Taylor
23Capturing Halls of Montezuma Polk leaves Taylor where he is. Why?Winfield Scott (“Old Fuss and Feathers”) Vera Cruz and March on Mexico City.One of the most brilliant campaigns in US history. Captures Mexico City.Scott hero during the war of 1812.Best general produced by US between Rev. War and Civil War.
24Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo 2/2/1848.Terms?American title to Texas confirmed with Rio Grande the border.Mexico yielded Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada to US. (with Texas, is about ½ of Mexico.) Land referred to as Mexican Cession.US to pay 15 Million and assume claims of citizens there against Mexico worth about 3 Million. (18.5 Mill compared to 25 Mill. prepared to pay for Cal. before the war.)
25Consequences of WarIdentify the short and long-term consequences of the war.
26Question:What caused the Mexican War? Did Polk provoke the Texas-boundary conflict in order to gain California or expand slavery, as war opponents like Lincoln charged?What were the benefits and costs of the Mexican War both immediately and in the longer run of American History?
27Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso Mexican American War was the opening chapter on events that led to the Civil War because of the new territory added.Foreshadows the Civil War:Practice for military leadersMore land to dispute over slavery