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Presentation on theme: "MANIFEST DESTINY AND ITS LEGACY,"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 17

Clay and Webster’s presumptuous assumption. Webster was Sec. of State. Clay the leader of the party in Congress. Harrison’s reaction Clay leads party in power and is ready to finally put his policies into law Harrison dies 40 days into presidency. Tyler takes over. Wm. Henry Harrison Shortest Term of any President.

3 John Tyler First vice president to take over for a president who died in office. Why is he on the ticket. Tyler is an old-school Virginian. Why did he leave the Democratic Party for the Whigs? Part of the minority wing of the Whig party that adhered to State’s rights. His views are quite different from Clay and Webster.

4 Tyler at Odds with Clay Unofficial platform of the majority of the party Tyler’s views on unofficial platform Whigs accuse him of being a Democrat in Whig clothing Another defeat for Clay. Henry Clay: foiled again

5 John Tyler: A President Without A Party
Whigs try to get their agenda enacted into law. Repeal Independent Treasury. Passed. Second part: Renew the Bank of the US. Tyler’s reaction. “His Ascendancy” What do Whig’s do to Tyler? What does his cabinet do?

6 A War Of Words With England
British-American relationship erupted in war of words in Causes? Caroline affair. Lumberjack war—Aroostook Valley, Maine. Maine boundary vague Webster-Ashburton treaty

7 Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842

8 Texas Shines Alone Texas in a precarious position.
US had spurned request for annexation. Mexico still claims Texas as its Territory, Threatened to take it back and threatened war with US if US annexed. Many European countries were courting Texas Britain especially was very interested. Why?

9 The Belated Texas Nuptials
Texas becomes a leading issue in election of Dem. James K Polk vs. Whig Henry Clay. Democrats position. Whigs position. Polk wins. What does Tyler do as a result.. Mexico angry and accuses US of theft. Is Mexico right?

10 Oregon Fever Oregon Territory: everything North of California, West of the Rockies up to Both US and Brit have claims to the Territory. Treaty of 1818: Joint occupation. In 1840s,Oregon Trail. 5000 American in Oregon by Brits had only 700 Only a small areas really in dispute. Columbia river north to the 49th Par.

11 Map 17.2: The Oregon Controversy, 1846

12 A Mandate For Manifest Destiny
Election of 1844 Clay (Whig) against James K. Polk (Dem.). James K Polk of Tenn. First “dark-horse” nominee Had been Speaker of the House and governor of Tenn. for two terms. Jackson sponsored him. Dems publicized him as a young Jackson. Southern expansionist

13 Issues in 1844 Dems expansionist. Platform was for annexation of Texas and taking Oregon all the way up to “54-40 or Fight” Dems campaigned on Manifest Destiny What is “Manifest Destiny” Whigs were mostly against annexation of Texas, equating it with an expansion of slavery, but Clay couldn’t win without votes in the south. He tried to be both for and against annexation, and his waffling hurt him Other issues: tariff, slavery, the bank and internal improvements.

14 Polk Wins Polk won in a close election. New York the key state.
Clay lost there by 5000 because Liberty Party not split the vote. Why did Clay loose votes to Liberty Party? Tyler saw the election results as a mandate to annex Texas and started the ball rolling before he left office.

15 Polk The Purposeful Polk not dynamic or impressive physically.
Serious and worked very hard. Not brilliant, but was dogged, shrewd and well organized. Did not delegate much. Four-point program for his presidency Only one-term President to make the list of Top-10.

16 Polk’s Four Goals One: Reduced Tariff. Succeeded in reducing the tariff from 32 to 25%. Two: Restoration of Independent Treasury. Accomplished. Three: Settlement of Oregon. Polk and southern Dems. didn’t want all of Oregon, despite platform. Why? Brits recognize that they must compromise. Why? Brits agree to divide at 49th Par.

17 California Acquiring California Polk’s fourth goal.
Why does he want it? US likely to get eventually through settlement, but Polk doesn’t want to wait. Why? Offers to buy from Mexico. Mexico doesn’t want to sell. Ongoing disputes with Mexico

18 American Blood On American Soil
Polk’s strategy to get Mexico? Continuing dispute with Mexico over border of Texas. Nueces or Rio Grande? Polk sends Zachery Taylor’s troops across the Nueces into disputed Terr. Mexican troops cross Rio Grande and attack Taylor. Polk asks for a declaration of war claiming that US troops attacked on “US” soil.

19 The Texas Revolution,

20 Question: How did rivalry with Britain affect the American decision to annex Texas, the Oregon dispute, and lesser controversies of the period?

21 Going to War America catches war fever Spot resolution.
What? Who? Many Whigs vehemently against the war. Why? Mexican’s spoiling for war, as well. Assessing Polk’s actions

22 Mexican-American War Santa Anna dupes the US
Steven Kearny, Santa Fe 1846 John C. Fremont (Great Pathfinder), Bear Flag Rebellion Zachery Taylor defeats Santa Anna at Battle of Buena Vista Zachery Taylor

23 Capturing Halls of Montezuma
Polk leaves Taylor where he is. Why? Winfield Scott (“Old Fuss and Feathers”) Vera Cruz and March on Mexico City. One of the most brilliant campaigns in US history. Captures Mexico City. Scott hero during the war of 1812. Best general produced by US between Rev. War and Civil War.

24 Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo
2/2/1848. Terms? American title to Texas confirmed with Rio Grande the border. Mexico yielded Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada to US. (with Texas, is about ½ of Mexico.) Land referred to as Mexican Cession. US to pay 15 Million and assume claims of citizens there against Mexico worth about 3 Million. (18.5 Mill compared to 25 Mill. prepared to pay for Cal. before the war.)

25 Consequences of War Identify the short and long-term consequences of the war.

26 Question: What caused the Mexican War? Did Polk provoke the Texas-boundary conflict in order to gain California or expand slavery, as war opponents like Lincoln charged? What were the benefits and costs of the Mexican War both immediately and in the longer run of American History?

27 Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso
Mexican American War was the opening chapter on events that led to the Civil War because of the new territory added. Foreshadows the Civil War: Practice for military leaders More land to dispute over slavery


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