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©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 14: Western.

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Presentation on theme: "©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 14: Western."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 14: Western Expansion and the Rise of the Slavery Issue Preview: “The expansion of the United States to the Pacific was a process involving many overlapping and diverse frontiers—of cultures, peoples, and even animals and disease….Ominously, the acquisition of new lands also reopened the debate over slavery and the Union.” The Highlights: Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny The Trek West The Trek West The Political Origins of Expansion The Political Origins of Expansion New Societies in the West New Societies in the West Escape from Crisis Escape from Crisis

2 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Manifest Destiny The Roots of the Doctrine The Roots of the Doctrine –Many Americans believed that their country had a divine mission –Americans believed that their social and economic system should spread globally The Mexican Borderlands –California society: San Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey, and San Francisco –New Mexico society dominated by ranchero families

3 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Manifest Destiny Phrase coined in 1845 by John L. O’Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review. Phrase coined in 1845 by John L. O’Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review. Expressed conviction that the development of a superior system of government and lifestyle dictated a God-given right of Americans to spread their civilization to the four corners of the continent. Expressed conviction that the development of a superior system of government and lifestyle dictated a God-given right of Americans to spread their civilization to the four corners of the continent. – God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become stronger – Americans make new territories free and democratic – growing American population needs land

4 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

5 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Western Trails

6 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Overland Trail The Overland Trail –Migration west: excluded elderly and poor –Trips lasted about 6 months Women on the Overland Trail Women on the Overland Trail –Breakdown of women’s traditional role –Women’s sense of loss of home stability Indians and the Trail Experience Indians and the Trail Experience –Pressures on the Plains Indians –Fort Laramie conference The Trek West

7 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

8 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Texas Revolution To strengthen border areas, Mexico offered land for reduced costs requiring only that the settlers become Mexican citizens and Catholics. To strengthen border areas, Mexico offered land for reduced costs requiring only that the settlers become Mexican citizens and Catholics. 1820s--Americans move into Texas 1820s--Americans move into Texas "Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule "Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule Mexico tries abolishing slavery Mexico tries abolishing slavery armed rebellion breaks out Mexico feared a hostile takeover of Texas after repeated attempt by the United States to buy the territory armed rebellion breaks out Mexico feared a hostile takeover of Texas after repeated attempt by the United States to buy the territory. Stephen Austin and many other contractors organized parties of settlers into Texas. Stephen Austin and many other contractors organized parties of settlers into Texas. Few settlers honored their agreement with Mexico. Few settlers honored their agreement with Mexico.

9 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Texas Revolution

10 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Republic of Texas March, Texans declare independence March, Texans declare independence The Battle of the Alamo (Feb 23-Mar 6,1836) The Battle of the Alamo (Feb 23-Mar 6,1836) April, Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto April, Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto May, Santa Anna’s treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates) May, Santa Anna’s treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates) Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson

11 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Tyler and Texas John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s death John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s death Tyler breaks with Whigs Tyler breaks with Whigs Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issue Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issue Senate refuses to ratify Senate refuses to ratify Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay

12 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Political Origins of Expansion Tyler’s Texas Ploy Tyler’s Texas Ploy –Tyler breaks with Whigs –The Texas movement, 1840 Van Overboard Van Overboard –Polk nominated by the Democrats, 1844 –Polk wins narrow victory over Clay –The slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" appeared by January 1846, driven in part by the Democratic press.

13 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

14 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Triumph of Polk and Annexation Democrats nominate James K. Polk Democrats nominate James K. Polk Polk runs on expansionist platform Polk runs on expansionist platform – annexation of Texas for Southern vote – U.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern vote Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion Texas annexed before Polk inaugurated Texas annexed before Polk inaugurated

15 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill To the Pacific To the Pacific –Tyler hoped to gain San Diego, San Francisco, and Puget Sound –Oregon Territory divided along the 49 th parallel The Mexican War The Mexican War –Disputed boundary of Texas –Slidell sent to Mexico to try to buy territory to the Pacific Opposition to the War Opposition to the War –War posed a dilemma for Whigs –Sentiment for the war was weaker in the East

16 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill War with Mexico, Mexico severed diplomatic ties with America after its annexation of Texas. Mexico severed diplomatic ties with America after its annexation of Texas. President Polk failed to appreciate the humiliation of the Mexicans and sent American troops to forestall a potential invasion. Hostilities quickly followed. President Polk failed to appreciate the humiliation of the Mexicans and sent American troops to forestall a potential invasion. Hostilities quickly followed. Debate in Washington simmered as U.S. forces swept into Mexico and took the capital city. Debate in Washington simmered as U.S. forces swept into Mexico and took the capital city.

17 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

18 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Price of Victory The Price of Victory –Conquest of Mexico –Brought slavery issue to the center of national politics The Rise of the Slavery Issue The Rise of the Slavery Issue –Northern discontent –Wilmot Proviso –Peace treaty with Mexico “The status of slavery in the territories became more than an abstract question when the Senate in 1848 ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo….With the United States in control of the Pacific Coast from San Diego to Puget Sound, Polk’s continental vision had become a reality”(441)

19 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Settlement of the Mexican-American War February, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo February, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Rio Grande becomes southern border Rio Grande becomes southern border New Mexico, California ceded to U.S. New Mexico, California ceded to U.S. Mexican War politically contentious Mexican War politically contentious – Whigs oppose – Northerners see as Slave Power expansion

20 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

21 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill New Societies in the West Farming in the West Farming in the West –Evolution of western society –Wealth became concentrated The Gold Rush The Gold Rush –Life in the mining camps –Women in the camps –Nativist and racial prejudices –Environmental impact of mining

22 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Instant City: San Francisco Instant City: San Francisco –San Francisco’s chaotic growth –Land prices soared, speculation was rampant, and commercial forces became paramount The Migration from China The Migration from China –In 1860 San Francisco was 50 percent foreign-born –Most Chinese who arrived came from Southern China around Canton

23 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill The Mormons in Utah The Mormons in Utah –State of Deseret established with Brigham Young as governor –Polygamy –Irrigation and community Temple City: Salt Lake Temple City: Salt Lake –Salt Lake City’s orderly growth –Sense of common purpose through religious and economic discipline Shadows on the Moving Frontier Shadows on the Moving Frontier –Hispanic-Anglo conflict –Social banditry: stealing from the wealthy to aid the poor

24 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

25 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Polk and the Oregon Question Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupation Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupation England prepares for war, proposes division of the area England prepares for war, proposes division of the area Senate approves division of Oregon along 49 o north latitude, Treaty of 1846 Senate approves division of Oregon along 49 o north latitude, Treaty of 1846 U.S. gains ownership of Puget Sound U.S. gains ownership of Puget Sound North condemned Polk for division North condemned Polk for division

26 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill A Two-Faced Campaign A Two-Faced Campaign –Free Soil party: antislavery coalition –Different campaigns were run in the North and the South The Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 –Taylor’s plan –Clay’s compromise –Passage of the Compromise Escape from Crisis

27 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Away from the Brink Away from the Brink –Rejection of secession –Reaction to the fugitive slave law –Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) “As the North became increasingly industrialized and the South more firmly committed to an economy based on cotton and slavery, the growing conflict between the two sections would shatter the Jacksonian party system, reignite the slavery issue, and shake the Union to its foundation”(453).

28 ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. ©2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century


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