Presentation on theme: "Jerome Bruner: Learning as Discovery (1915-present)"— Presentation transcript:
1Jerome Bruner:Learning as Discovery(1915-present)
2J erome Bruner: Biographical Sketch Learning as Discovery Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerBiographical SketchBorn in New York City on October 1, 1915A.B. Duke University (1937)A.M. Harvard University (1939)Ph.D. Harvard University (1941)United States Army's Intelligence Corps ( )Harvard University ( )
3Biographical Sketch (…cont.) Learning as DiscoveryJ eromeBruner:Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerBiographical Sketch (…cont.)Established Center for Cognitive Studies in (1960)Director ( )President of the American PsychologicalAssociation ( )Oxford University ( ) Watts Professor ofExperimental PsychologyNYU Law School (1991-present). ResearchProfessor of Psychology
4Discovery Learning Theory Learning as DiscoveryJ eromeBruner:Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerDiscovery Learning Theory“an approach to instruction through which students interact with their environment—by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments” (Ormrod, 2001, p.442).
5J erome Bruner: Enactive Stage Learning as Discovery Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerEnactive StageFrom birth to about age 3.Children need to experience the concrete.Usually involves a motor response.Children use actions to manipulate objects.Objects are defined by what they can do with them.Showing and modeling is important versus telling at this stage.
6J erome Bruner: Iconic Stage Learning as Discovery Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerIconic StageFrom about age 3 to about age 8Children are able to think about things that are not physically presentImages are primarily visual or based in another senseEx. They can do math problems in their head.
7Symbolic Representation Stage Learning as DiscoveryJ eromeBruner:Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerSymbolic Representation StageThis stage occurs at about age 7Bruner believes that in this stage, children are able to transform action and image into a symbolic system to encode knowledgeThe “symbols” are primarily linguistic and mathematicalSymbolic Representation is a major tool in reflective thinking
8Symbolic Representation In Action Learning as DiscoveryJ eromeBruner:Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerSymbolic Representation In ActionYoung students would see a teacher fill a glass of one shape with water and then transfer that water into a glass of another shape. The students would say that because the glasses were different shapes, there is a different amount of water. Students that can understand Symbolic Representation are able to understand that the glasses have the same amount of water.
9J erome Bruner: In Conclusion… Learning as Discovery Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerIn Conclusion…Bruner believed that students learn best through discovery and a spiraled curriculum.He said that knowing is a process rather than the accumulated knowledge as acquired in textbooksBruner believed that we should instruct students to use the tools, instruments, and technologies available to them to unlock their potential
10How Would Bruner Look In The Classroom Learning as DiscoveryJ eromeBruner:Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerHow Would Bruner Look In The ClassroomInquiry-Based Science Lessons where students would be expected to investigate a hypothesisLessons involve both collaboration and internalization, with teacher support provided throughoutA sample lesson plan, following Bruner’s theory, has been created by Huntington College and appears at right
11J erome Bruner: References And Links Learning as Discovery Group DChristina, Colleen, & TylerReferences And LinksHuntington College Lesson PlanBruner’s TheoryOrmrod, J. (2001).Educational psychology: Developing learners (3rd ed.), p UpperSaddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.