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Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis. Manifest Destiny Fate of America, destined by God and history, to expand its boundaries over the continent of North America.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis. Manifest Destiny Fate of America, destined by God and history, to expand its boundaries over the continent of North America."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis

2 Manifest Destiny Fate of America, destined by God and history, to expand its boundaries over the continent of North America and perhaps farther. Fate of America, destined by God and history, to expand its boundaries over the continent of North America and perhaps farther.

3 Reasons for Manifest Destiny Manifested Destiny represented: the spread of democracy and individualism (political) the spread of racial superiority of the “American race” (social) the opening of new lands for farming and new ports for trading (economic)

4 Maine Both U.S. and Britain claimed 12,000 square miles between Maine and New Brunswick, Canada. Both U.S. and Britain claimed 12,000 square miles between Maine and New Brunswick, Canada. Militia on both sides fought in the small- scale “Aroostook War” Militia on both sides fought in the small- scale “Aroostook War” Settled in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 Settled in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842

5 Election of 1840 William Henry Harrison was elected president in 1840; VP was John Tyler (both were Whigs) William Henry Harrison was elected president in 1840; VP was John Tyler (both were Whigs) Harrison died of pneumonia one month after inauguration. Harrison died of pneumonia one month after inauguration. Tyler took on the position and title of President, something that had never been done before. Tyler took on the position and title of President, something that had never been done before.

6 Tyler as President When William Henry Harrison died shortly after inauguration in 1841, VP John Tyler became president When William Henry Harrison died shortly after inauguration in 1841, VP John Tyler became president Tyler had weak ties to the Whig party Tyler had weak ties to the Whig party Got rid of the Independent Treasury System and raised tariffs Got rid of the Independent Treasury System and raised tariffs Refused to support Clay’s attempt to recharter the B.U.S. Refused to support Clay’s attempt to recharter the B.U.S. Vetoed several internal improvement bills. Vetoed several internal improvement bills. Whigs responded by kicking Tyler out of the party Whigs responded by kicking Tyler out of the party

7 Oregon Both U.S. and Britain had joint claims and joint occupation of Oregon Territory as agreed in a treaty in Both U.S. and Britain had joint claims and joint occupation of Oregon Territory as agreed in a treaty in During 1820s and 1830s, U.S. interest in the region grew, especially in the area of the Willamette Valley. During 1820s and 1830s, U.S. interest in the region grew, especially in the area of the Willamette Valley.

8 Westward Migration Between 1840 and 1860, hundreds of thousands of white and Black Americans moved west. Between 1840 and 1860, hundreds of thousands of white and Black Americans moved west. Southerners went mainly to Texas Southerners went mainly to Texas Migrants from the Old Northwest moved to the far west. Migrants from the Old Northwest moved to the far west. Those who went for farming (OR) moved in families; those who went for gold (CA) were mainly single men. Those who went for farming (OR) moved in families; those who went for gold (CA) were mainly single men.

9 Life on the Trail From , 300,000 traveled west on overland trails From , 300,000 traveled west on overland trails Began in Iowa or Missouri; most well-traveled and direct route was the 2,000 mile Oregon Trail. Began in Iowa or Missouri; most well-traveled and direct route was the 2,000 mile Oregon Trail. Long journey – 4-6 months (May to Nov); slow pace of miles per day by wagon train. Long journey – 4-6 months (May to Nov); slow pace of miles per day by wagon train. Before Civil War, Indians more helpful than dangerous; many were trail guides and traders. Before Civil War, Indians more helpful than dangerous; many were trail guides and traders.

10 Map of the Overland Trails

11 Texas Settlement Mexico invited U.S. settlers to Texas – led by Steven Austin in 1820s. Mexico invited U.S. settlers to Texas – led by Steven Austin in 1820s. Supposed to speak Spanish, become Catholic, and abolish slavery – did none of them. Supposed to speak Spanish, become Catholic, and abolish slavery – did none of them. When Mexican gov’t began to crack down on the settlers, they revolted. When Mexican gov’t began to crack down on the settlers, they revolted.

12 Texas War for Independence Led by Sam Houston, they fought against Santa Anna and the Mexican Army (1836) Led by Sam Houston, they fought against Santa Anna and the Mexican Army (1836) Settlers were defeated at the town of Goliad and at the Alamo, a Spanish mission Settlers were defeated at the town of Goliad and at the Alamo, a Spanish mission “Remember the Alamo” became the battle cry “Remember the Alamo” became the battle cry They won a major victory at the Battle of San Jacinto Creek where Santa Anna was forced to surrender and grant them independence. They won a major victory at the Battle of San Jacinto Creek where Santa Anna was forced to surrender and grant them independence.

13 The Lone Star Republic Sam Houston was chosen as President of Texas. Sam Houston was chosen as President of Texas. They asked for immediate annexation to U.S, but were refused by both Jackson and Van Buren They asked for immediate annexation to U.S, but were refused by both Jackson and Van Buren –Northern concern over spread of slavery –Possibility of dividing Texas terr. into 5 states Tyler annexed, but it was declined by U.S. Senate for statehood Tyler annexed, but it was declined by U.S. Senate for statehood

14 Election of 1844 Whigs – Henry Clay – noncommittal on expansionism Whigs – Henry Clay – noncommittal on expansionism Democrats – James K. Polk – definite position on Manifest Destiny meant to appeal to both northerners and southerners. Democrats – James K. Polk – definite position on Manifest Destiny meant to appeal to both northerners and southerners. Polk’s platform: Polk’s platform: –Gain Oregon –Annex Texas –Gain California –Lower tariffs –Reinstate the Independent Treasury System

15 Texas Becomes a State Texas was annexed by a joint-resolution of Congress in February 1845 (during Tyler’s outgoing months) Texas was annexed by a joint-resolution of Congress in February 1845 (during Tyler’s outgoing months) Became a state in December 1845 under President Polk. Became a state in December 1845 under President Polk.

16 “Fifty-four forty or fight” Polk offered a compromise to Britain to set the U.S.- Canadian border at the 49 th parallel. Polk offered a compromise to Britain to set the U.S.- Canadian border at the 49 th parallel. British minister refused, Polk asserted U.S. claim to the entire territory, and there was loose talk of war under the slogan “54*40’ or fight” British minister refused, Polk asserted U.S. claim to the entire territory, and there was loose talk of war under the slogan “54*40’ or fight” Neither country wanted war and the British government accepted the 49 th parallel as the boundary Neither country wanted war and the British government accepted the 49 th parallel as the boundary

17 Map of Disputed Oregon Territory

18 War with Mexico? When Texas was annexed to the U.S., Mexico broke off diplomatic relations. When Texas was annexed to the U.S., Mexico broke off diplomatic relations. Boundary dispute over the southern border of Texas. Boundary dispute over the southern border of Texas. Polk accepted the Texas claim and in the summer of 1845, sent soldiers under Gen. Zachary Taylor to Texas to “protect” against a possible “invasion” Polk accepted the Texas claim and in the summer of 1845, sent soldiers under Gen. Zachary Taylor to Texas to “protect” against a possible “invasion” In CA, Polk told settlers that the U.S. would be sympathetic to a revolt against Mexican authorities there. In CA, Polk told settlers that the U.S. would be sympathetic to a revolt against Mexican authorities there.

19 Negotiations with Mexico Polk sent John Slidell to attempt to purchase the disputed territories, but Mexico rejected the offer. Polk sent John Slidell to attempt to purchase the disputed territories, but Mexico rejected the offer. Polk ordered Taylor to move his men across the Nueces River where they had been stationed, toward the Rio Grand, but the Mexicans refused to fight. Polk ordered Taylor to move his men across the Nueces River where they had been stationed, toward the Rio Grand, but the Mexicans refused to fight. According to disputed accounts, a group of Mexican soldiers did cross and attacked American soldiers. According to disputed accounts, a group of Mexican soldiers did cross and attacked American soldiers. Congress declared war on May 13, Congress declared war on May 13, War opposed by many – including Lincoln War opposed by many – including Lincoln

20 Map of the Mexican War

21 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexican War: May 1846-September 1847 Mexican War: May 1846-September 1847 Polk sent Nicholas Trist to negotiate treaty Polk sent Nicholas Trist to negotiate treaty February 2, 1848 – Treaty signed February 2, 1848 – Treaty signed –Mexico agreed to cede CA and NM to the U.S –Rio Grande would be boundary of Texas –U.S. would assume any financial claims against Mexico and pay them $15 million – US bought more territory from Mexico (Gadsden Purchase) to use for a southern transcontinental RR 1853 – US bought more territory from Mexico (Gadsden Purchase) to use for a southern transcontinental RR

22 Boundaries of U.S as of 1853

23 The Slavery Issue Rears Its Ugly Head 1846, Wilmot Proviso introduced in H.O.R. - prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico 1846, Wilmot Proviso introduced in H.O.R. - prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico Passed the H.O.R. but not the Senate Passed the H.O.R. but not the Senate Issue remained unresolved after election of Issue remained unresolved after election of 1848.

24 Election of 1848 Democrats – Lewis Cass (MI) Democrats – Lewis Cass (MI) Whigs – Gen. Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War, but no political experience. Whigs – Gen. Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War, but no political experience. Free-Soil Party – Martin Van Buren; anti- slavery platform, supported Wilmot Proviso. Free-Soil Party – Martin Van Buren; anti- slavery platform, supported Wilmot Proviso.

25 Taylor Elected Zachary Taylor won the presidency Zachary Taylor won the presidency Emergence of a third party signaled the inability of the existing parties to contain the passions associated with slavery issue. Emergence of a third party signaled the inability of the existing parties to contain the passions associated with slavery issue. Would lead to collapse of the “2 nd party system” (est. w/Jackson in 1828) in the 1850s. Would lead to collapse of the “2 nd party system” (est. w/Jackson in 1828) in the 1850s.

26 “Thar’s Gold in Them Thar Hills!” January 1848, James Marshall, a carpenter on John Sutter’s sawmill, found gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas near Sacramento. January 1848, James Marshall, a carpenter on John Sutter’s sawmill, found gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas near Sacramento. Tried to suppress the news, but by 1849 hundreds of thousands of people from around the globe flocked to CA in search of gold. Tried to suppress the news, but by 1849 hundreds of thousands of people from around the globe flocked to CA in search of gold. In four years, population of California went from 14,000 in 1848 to 220,000 in 1852 In four years, population of California went from 14,000 in 1848 to 220,000 in 1852

27 “Old Dan Tucker” I come to town the other night I come to town the other night I heard the noise and I saw the fight, The watchman was a runnin ‘round Saying “Old Dan Tucker’s come to town” Chorus Get out of the way old Dan Tucker You're too late to get your supper Old Dan Tucker's fine old man Old Dan Tucker's fine old man Washed his face in a fryin' pan Combed his hair with a wagon wheel Died with a toothache in his heel Chorus Now old Dan Tucker is come to town Now old Dan Tucker is come to town Swinging the ladies round and round First to the right and then to the left Then to the gal that he loves best Chorus Old Dan Tucker he got drunk Old Dan Tucker he got drunk Fell in the fire place and kicked up a chunk Red hot coal got in his shoe And, whoo, how the ashes flew Chorus


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