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The Late Middle Ages 1300-1450 Crisis and Dissolution.

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Presentation on theme: "The Late Middle Ages 1300-1450 Crisis and Dissolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Late Middle Ages 1300-1450 Crisis and Dissolution

2 An Age of Adversity Economic problems Famine & Plague Peasant Rebellions Decline of the Papacy Hundred Years War (1337-1453)

3 Economic problems 1300- “The Little Ice Age” Declining agricultural production Food shortages, malnutrition and famines Diminished revenues from peasants Silver shortage - Spiraling inflation Knights turned to plunder and warfare

4 The Black Death 1347-1352 Sicily Fleas on black rats C 20,000,000 dead Divine punishment for human sin

5 Negative impact of the Plague included: Panic- family, friends & villages abandoned Food production plummeted Jewish communities massacred Church authority questioned Economic and social tensions emerged into rebellions New artistic forms focused on decay and death

6 Positive long-term impact of the Plague Higher wages for manual labor People questioned the authority of church leaders Re-emergence of rational science Re-discovery of the ancient past New, questioning spirit- paved the way for the Renaissance

7 The Jacquerie, France, 1358

8 The Ciompi – Italy, 1378

9 Wat Tyler’s Peasant Revolt, aka The Great Rising, England, 1381

10 Decline of the Papacy

11 Pope Boniface VIII and French king Philip IV

12 “…if the earthly powers errs, it shall be judged by the spiritual power…. but the pope can be judged only by God, not by man. Therefore we declare, state, define and pronounce that it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff.” Pope Boniface VIII, 1296, Clercis Laicos; 1302, Unam Sanctam,

13 September, 1303 “The Terrible Day at Anagni.”

14 In 1309, Clement V -Avignon

15 The Babylonian Captivity, 1309-1377 Widespread criticism among devout Catholics of “the good life” led by the clergy at Avignon further reduced the prestige of the church and the pope in particular. Many saw the pope as a puppet of the French king

16 The Babylonian Captivity, 1309-1377 Petrarch, in 1353 wrote “I am now living in Avignon where reign the successors of the poor fishermen of Galilee [who] have strangely forgotten their origins. I am astounded…to see these men loaded with gold and clad in purple, boasting of the spoils of princes and nations; to see luxurious palaces and heights crowned with fortifications, instead of a boat turned downwards for their shelter.”

17 John Wycliffe (1320-1384) Stressed a personal relationship with God Sacraments are not necessary for salvation Denied that priests turned bread/wine to body/blood of Christ Denounced wealth and advocated material poverty Followers called Lollards

18 The Great Schism, 1378-1417 1378: Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII

19 The Great Schism, 1378-1417 1409, Council of Pisa elected Alexander V – a third pope!

20 Council of Constance, 1414-1417 elected Martin V as new Pope.

21 The Hundred Years War, 1337-1453

22 William of Normandy, aka William the Conqueror, 1066


24 Edward III r. 1327-1377 In 1337, he claimed the throne of France. Henry V r 1413-1422 took advantage of a civil war in France and invaded in 1415


26 Crecy, 1346 Poitiers, 1356 The Long Bow vs mounted knights and the crossbow

27 Agincourt, 1415

28 Joan of Arc (1412-1431) Jeanne D’Arc, 1429 “The Maid of Orleans”

29 Captured by the Duke of Burgundy in 1430 and turned over to English


31 Impact of the Hundred Years War English held only the port city of Calais England experienced a civil war French monarchy grew in power & prestige Kings won the right to collect taxes New weapons and strategy for warfare Code of Chivalry abandoned Feudalism began to decline

32 Legacy of the Middle Ages… Notions of honor, duty, loyalty, and love European cities / The middle class The state system English common law -concept of liberty Equality and the sacred worth of the individual Representative government Universities Corporations, Bookkeeping & Banking Preserved Greco-Roman scholarship Growth of secularism

33 Any Questions?

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