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Chapter 11 The Growth of Democracy Chapter 11 The Growth of Democracy OUT OF MANY A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part One Introduction 2© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Focus Questions How did suffrage expand between 1800 and 1840? In what ways did Andrew Jackson’s presidency affirm new democratic policies? How did the major political struggles of the Jackson years strengthen the executive branch of government? How did the basic two-party pattern of American political democracy take shape? How was a distinctive American cultural identity shaped by writers and artists? 3 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Two American Communities: A Community of Voters Moves from Deference to Democracy 4© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
American Communities: A Community of Voters Moves from Deference to Democracy William Heighton urged Philadelphia working men to form their own political party to press for issues directly concerning them. The Philadelphia Working Men’s Party was formed and helped arouse animosity towards the monied aristocracy. Due to the lack of broad appeal, the party did not last long and was quickly absorbed by the Jackson’s Democratic Party. 5 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Three The New Democratic Politics in North America 6© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Continental Struggles over Popular Rights In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain. Santa Anna was the strongest early president assuming dictatorial powers, but was in office when Texas and northern provinces were lost to the United States. In Haiti, independence destroyed the sugar industry. The British Caribbean islands experienced numerous revolts leading to the abolition of slavery and the subsequent decline of the sugar industry. A revolt in 1837 by Upper and Lower Canada led to the union of the two regions to make the French- speaking population a minority. 7 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage Map: Population Trends: Westward Expansion, 1830 While the population of the United States more than doubled between 1800 and 1830, the trans-Appalachian population grew tenfold. 8 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 11.1 Population Trends: Westward Expansion, 1830 Westward population movement, only a trickle in 1800, had become a flood by Between 1800 and 1830, the U.S. white and African American population more than doubled (from 5.3 million to 12.9 million), but the trans- Appalachian population grew tenfold (from 370,000 to 3.7 million). By 1830, more than a third of the nation’s inhabitants lived west of the original thirteen states. 9 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage Chart: Race Exclusions for Suffrage, In 1800, only white, male, property owners could vote in most states. As new western states came into the Union, suffrage expanded. By 1820 most of the older states had dropped property qualifications. By 1840, 90 percent of adult white males could vote. Women and African Americans were barred from voting. 10 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 11.1 Race Exclusions for Suffrage, 1790–1855 This graph shows that as the number of states increased so did the percentage that excluded African American men from voting. None of the states that entered the Union after 1819 allowed African American suffrage. SOURCE: Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote (New York: Basic Books,2000) p © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Election of 1824 Map: The Election of 1824 The 1824 election marked an end to the political truce of the Era of Good Feelings. Five candidates ran for the presidency. Though Andrew Jackson had the most popular votes, John Quincy Adams won as a result of the so-called “corrupt bargain.” Hostile relations with Congress blocked many of Adams’s initiatives. 12 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 11.2 The Election of 1824 The presidential vote of 1824 was clearly sectional. John Quincy Adams carried his native New England and little else, Henry Clay carried only his own state of Kentucky and two adjoining states, and Crawford’s appeal was limited to Virginia and Georgia. Only Andrew Jackson moved beyond the regional support of the Old Southwest to wider appeal and the greatest number of electoral votes. Because no candidate had a majority, however, the election was thrown into the House of Representatives, which chose Adams. 13 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The New Popular Democratic Culture A more popular form of politics was emerging. New state organizations increased political participation and helped elect Andrew Jackson president. New techniques of mass campaigning encouraged increases in participation. 14 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
This well-known painting by George Caleb Bingham, Stump Speaking, shows a group of men (and boys and dogs) of all social classes brought together by their common interest in politics. SOURCE: George Caleb Bingham (American 1811 –79), “Stump Speaking,” 1853 –54. Oil on canvas, 42 1 /2 x 58 in. Saint Louis Art Museum, Gift of Bank of America. 15 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Politics, abetted by the publication of inexpensive party newspapers, was a great topic of conversation among men in early nineteenth-century America, as Richard Caton Woodville’s 1845 painting Politics in an Oyster House suggests. SOURCE: Richard Caton Woodville, “Politics in an Oyster House,” The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. 16 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The New Popular Democratic Culture Chart: The Burgeoning of Newspapers The print revolution was most evident in the growth of newspapers. It also helped democratize politics by publicizing the new political pageantry. Tightly-organized, broad-based political groups emerged. Party loyalty among politicians and the public was stressed as politics became a feature of everyday life. 17 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 11.2 The Burgeoning of Newspapers Newspapers have a long history in the United States. Even before the American Revolution, the colonies boasted 37 newspapers, and within little more than a decade, that number had nearly tripled. Toward the end of the century, however, the number of newspapers expanded rapidly, by 1835 numbering more than 30 times that of © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Election of 1828 Map: The Election of 1828 In the 1828 election, Jackson triumphed as his supporters portrayed the contest as a struggle between democracy and aristocracy. His victory showed the strength of the new popular democratic culture and system of national parties made up of a coalition of the North, South, and West. Chart: Pre–Civil War Voter Turnout 19 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 11.3 The Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson’s victory in 1828 was the first success of the new national party system. The coalition of state parties that elected him was national, not regional. Although his support was strongest in the South and West, his ability to carry Pennsylvania and parts of New York demonstrated his national appeal. 20 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 11.3 Pre–Civil War Voter Turnout The turnout of voters in presidential elections more than doubled from 1824 to 1828, the year Andrew Jackson was first elected. Turnout surged to 80 percent in 1840, the year the Whigs triumphed. The extension of suffrage to all white men, and heated competition between two political parties with nationwide membership, turned presidential election campaigns into events with great popular appeal. 21 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
22 This anti-Jackson “coffin bill” from the election of 1828 accuses Jackson of murder because he ordered the three men executed for desertion during the War of 1812.
Part Four The Jackson Presidency 23© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
A Popular President Jackson symbolized the personal advancement that the frontier offered. His inauguration brought out a mob of well- wishers who had unruly behavior. 24 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
25 Seeing History “President’s Levee, or all Creation Going to the White House.” SOURCE: Robert Cruikshank, President’s Levee, or all Creation Going to the White House, illustrated in The Playfair Papers (London: Saunders and Otley, 1841).
A Strong Executive Jackson was a strong executive who consulted with the “Kitchen Cabinet,” largely ignoring his cabinet. Jackson used social distance to separate himself from other politicians. Jackson strengthened the presidency by using the veto more frequently than had all of his predecessors combined. 26 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Nation’s Leader versus Sectional Spokesmen Jackson’s Democrats created a national coalition that transcended sectional identity. Regional spokespeople included: Daniel Webster for the North; John C. Calhoun for the South; and Henry Clay for the West. Jackson overrode sectional interests and had national appeal. 27 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
28 Three Great Sectional Leaders. The years of Jackson’s presidency were also notable for the prominence of regional spokesmen, among them John C. Calhoun (top left), who spoke for the South and slavery, Henry Clay (top right) who spoke for the West, and Daniel Webster (bottom left), who represented northern business. Clay’s personal charm is captured in this 1824 portrait, contrasting with Calhoun’s dour expression and Webster’s stern image. SOURCE: (Top right) Matthew H. Joulett ( ), “Henry Clay,” c Oil on panel. (attr. To Joulett) © Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, USA.
The Nullification Crisis Constitutional ambiguity, sectional interests, and the states’ rights issue caused political controversies. The 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” elicited a strong reaction from South Carolina. Southerners argued that the tariff was an unconstitutional effort to enrich the North at southern expense. John C. Calhoun wrote a defense of the doctrine of nullification claiming states could refuse to enforce laws they deemed unconstitutional. South Carolina nullified the 1833 tariff and threatened to secede. Jackson considered South Carolina’s action treason and passed the Force Bill. Henry Clay engineered a compromise tariff that ended the threat of civil war. 29 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Five Changing the Course of Government 30© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Indian Removal Map: Southern Indian Cessions and Removals, 1830s Jackson embraced the policy of Indian cession of their lands and removal west of the Mississippi River. The five civilized tribes of the South were most affected. Even though the Cherokee had adopted white ways and accepted white culture, Jackson pressed for their removal. Jackson defied the Supreme Court ruling in favor of the Cherokee. The Cherokee removal was called the“Trail of Tears.” The removal was strongly opposed by northerners. 31 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 11.4 Southern Indian Cessions and Removals, 1830s Pressure on the five major southern Indian peoples—the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles— that began during the War of 1812 culminated with their removal in the 1830s. Some groups from every tribe ceded their southern homelands peacefully and moved to the newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Some, like the Seminoles, resisted by force. Others, like the Cherokees, resisted in the courts, but finally lost when President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce a Supreme Court decision in their favor. The Cherokees, the last to move, were forcibly removed by the U.S. Army along the “Trail of Tears” in © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Internal Improvements Jackson argued that federal funding for infrastructure was unconstitutional. Without federal funding the initiatives passed to private developers who then passed it to the states. States provided more funding for roads, canals and railroads than the federal government. 33 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Legal Support for Private Enterprise The Supreme Court fostered economic growth by: asserting federal power over interstate commerce; and encouraging economic competition by denying monopolies. State laws enabled businesses to protect themselves by granting charters of incorporation. 34 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Bank War Chartered in 1816, the Second Bank of the United States was a quasi-private institution. The Second Bank acted as a currency stabilizer by: encouraging the growth of strong and stable financial interest; and curbing less stable and irresponsible ones. Eastern merchants found the bank a useful institution. Western farmers and speculators feared the Bank represented a moneyed elite. Jackson vetoed the bill when Clay and Webster pushed for early re-chartering. 35 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
In this political cartoon, Jackson destroys the Second Bank of the United States by withdrawing government deposits. As the Bank crashes, it crushes the director Nicholas Biddle (depicted as the Devil), wealthy investors (with moneybags), and the newspaper editors (surrounded by paper) who opposed Jackson on this issue. 36 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Jackson’s Reelection in 1832 In the election of 1832 Jackson soundly defeated Henry Clay. After his victory, Jackson withdrew federal deposits and placed them in “pet” banks. Jackson claimed that he was the direct representative of the people and could act regardless of Congressional opinion. 37 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
This figurehead of Andrew Jackson, carved in 1834 for the navy frigate Constitution, captures the unmovable resolve that made Jackson so popular early in his presidency and so reviled during the Bank War. SOURCE: Museum of the City of New York (M52.11). 38 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Whigs, Van Buren, and the Election of 1836 The Bank called in commercial loans, causing a recession. Jackson’s opponents founded an opposition party—the Whigs. The new party lost the 1836 election to Martin Van Buren. 39 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Panic of 1837 The death of the Bank led to feverish speculation and the Panic of The depression that resulted led to great hardship giving the newly formed Whig Party its opportunity. 40 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
This contemporary cartoon bitterly depicts the terrible effects of the Panic of 1837 on ordinary people—bank failures, unemployment, drunkenness, and destitution—which the artist links to the insistence of the rich on payment in specie (as Jackson had required in the Species Circular of 1836). Over the scene waves the American flag, accompanied by the ironic message, “61st Anniversary of our Independence.” 41 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Six The Second American Party System 42© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Whigs and Democrats Democrats: Party spoke for Jeffersonian democracy, expansion, and the freedom of the “common man” from interference of the government of financial monopolies It’s power base lay in the rural South and West and among northern urban workers 43 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Whigs and Democrats Whigs: Heirs to Federalism, they favored strong role for national government in economy and supported active social reform It’s power base lay in the North and Old Northwest among voters who benefited from increased commercialization and among southern planters and urban merchants 44 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Campaign of 1840 Map: The Election of 1840 In the election of 1840 Whigs portrayed their candidate, William Henry Harrison, as a humble man. The Whigs won a sweeping electoral victory in a campaign with 80 percent voter turnout. 46 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 11.5 The Election of 1840 The Whigs triumphed in the election of 1840 by beating the Democrats at their own game. Whigs could expect to do well in the commercializing areas of New England and the Old Northwest, but their adopted strategy of popular campaigning worked well in the largely rural South and West as well, contributing to Harrison’s victory. The Whigs’ choice of John Tyler as vice presidential candidate, another strategy designed to appeal to southern voters, backfired when Harrison died and Tyler, who did not share Whig principles, became America’s first vice president to succeed to the presidency. 47 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Whig Victory Turns to Loss: The Tyler Presidency The Whig triumph was short-lived as Harrison died a month after his inauguration. Vice-President John Tyler assumed office. A former Democrat, Tyler vetoed a series of bills calling for a new Bank of the United States, tariffs, and internal improvements. The Whigs were only able to win one more election in © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Seven American Arts and Letters 49© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Popular Cultures and the Spread of the Written Word The print revolution had far reaching effects beyond politics. Newspapers and almanacs fostered popular culture. 50 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
A Regular Row in the Backwoods. The 1841 issue of the Crockett Almanac, named after the Tennessee backwoodsman made famous by his self-serving tall tales, portrayed a rough rural “sport.” Inexpensive comic almanacs combined illustrated jokes on topical subjects with astrological and weather predictions. 51 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Creating a National American Culture An intellectual movement was stimulated by eastern societies and journals. Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and especially Ralph Waldo Emerson created a distinctly American culture. 52 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Boston Athenaeum was one of Boston’s leading cultural institutions. The library, shown in this engraving, was probably the finest in the country in the early nineteenth century. 53 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Artists and Builders Artists such as Albert Bierstedt and George Caleb Bingham drew upon dramatic themes from the American landscape and lifestyles. Neoclassical remained the architectural style for public buildings. Balloon frame construction enabled Americans to build homes at a rapid clip. 54 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Eight Conclusion 55© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
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