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John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Prepared by Karleen Nordquist.. The College of St. Benedict... and St. John’s University.... Managerial Accounting Weygandt, Kieso,

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Presentation on theme: "John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Prepared by Karleen Nordquist.. The College of St. Benedict... and St. John’s University.... Managerial Accounting Weygandt, Kieso,"— Presentation transcript:

1 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Prepared by Karleen Nordquist.. The College of St. Benedict... and St. John’s University.... Managerial Accounting Weygandt, Kieso, & Kimmel

2 Chapter 3 Process Cost Accounting

3 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1Understand who uses process systems. 2Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems. 3Explain the flow of costs in a process cost system. 4Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system. Chapter 3 Process Cost Accounting

4 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 5Compute equivalent units. 6Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report. 7Prepare a production cost report. Chapter 3 Process Cost Accounting

5 Preview of Chapter 3 Nature of Process Cost Systems Uses Similarities and Differences Process Cost Flow Assignment of Manufacturing Costs Equivalent Units Weighted-Average Method Refinements Production Cost Report PROCESS COST ACCOUNTING

6 Preview of Chapter 3 Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Physical Units Equivalent Units of Production Unit Production Costs Cost Reconciliation Schedule Production Cost Report PROCESS COST ACCOUNTING

7 Understand who uses process systems. Study Objective 1

8 The Nature of Process Cost Systems Process cost systems are used to apply costs to similar products that are mass-produced in a continuous fashion. In a process costing environment, finished units are normally indistinguishable from each other.

9 Explain the similarities and differences between job order cost and process cost systems. Study Objective 2

10 Job Order versus Process Cost Systems  In a job order cost system, costs are assigned to each job.  In a process cost system, costs are tracked through a series of connected manufacturing processes or departments, rather than by individual jobs.  Thus, process cost systems are used when a large volume of uniform, or relatively homogeneous, products are produced.

11 Job Order Cost and Process Cost Flow Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Cost of Goods Sold Finished Goods Inventory Work in Process Inventory Job 101 Job 102 Job 103 Job Order Cost Flow Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Work in Process - Department A Work in Process - Department B Finished Goods Inventory Cost of Goods Sold Process Cost Flow Illustration 3-3

12 Job Order versus Process Cost Systems: Similarities  The manufacturing cost elements: Both systems track Direct Materials, Direct Labor, and Manufacturing Overhead.  The accumulation of the costs: Both systems accumulate costs by debiting Raw Materials Inventory, Factory Labor, and Manufacturing Overhead.  The flow of costs: Both systems assign costs to Work in Process, Finished Goods, and Cost of Goods Sold. The method of assigning costs differs significantly, however.

13 Job Order versus Process Cost Systems: Differences  The number of work in process accounts used: A job order cost system uses only one work in process account. Process cost systems use a separate work in process account for each production department or manufacturing process.  Documents used to track costs: In a job order cost system, costs are charged to individual jobs and summarized on a job cost sheet. In a process cost system, costs are summarized in a production cost report for each department.

14 Job Order versus Process Cost Systems: Differences  The point at which costs are totaled: In job order cost system, total costs are determined when the job is completed. In a process cost system, total costs are determined at the end of a period of time, such as a month or year.  Unit cost computations: In a job order cost system, the unit cost is the total cost per job divided by the units produced. In a process cost system, the unit cost is total manufacturing costs for the period divided by the units produced during the period.

15 Job Order versus Process Cost Systems: Summary Features Work in process accounts Documents used Determination of total manufacturing costs Unit-cost computations Process Cost System One for each process Production cost reports Each period Total manufacturing costs  Units produced during the period Job Order Cost System One for multiple jobs Job cost sheets Each job Costs of each job  Units produced for the job Illustration 3-4

16 Explain the flow of costs in a process cost system. Study Objective 3

17 Process Cost Flow Manufacturing Costs Raw Materials Factory Labor Manufacturing Overhead assigned to Work in Process Production Department A Costs transferred out to Finished Goods Inventory Cost of Goods Sold Work in Process Production Department B Cost of completed work Cost of Goods Sold Illustration 3-5

18 Process Cost Flow Tyler Company uses a process cost system to account for its manufacture of automatic can openers.  Manufacturing consists of two processes: Machining and Assembly. Materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead can be added in both departments.  When the Machining Department finishes its work, the partially completed units are transferred to the Assembly Department.  In the Assembly Department, the goods are finished and are then transferred to Finished Goods.  Upon sale, the goods are removed from Finished Goods and become Cost of Goods Sold.

19 Make the journal entries to assign manufacturing costs in a process cost system. Study Objective 4

20 Assignment of Manufacturing Costs  As indicated earlier, the accumulation of the costs of materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead is the same in a process cost system as in a job order cost system. – All raw materials are debited to Raw Materials when purchased. All factory labor is debited to Factory Labor when the labor costs are incurred. Overhead costs are debited to Manufacturing Overhead as they are incurred.  However, the assignment of the three cost elements to Work in Process in a process cost system is different from a job order system.

21 In a process cost system, fewer materials requisition slips are usually required than in a job order cost system, since materials are used for processes rather than for specific jobs. Materials are usually added to production at the beginning of the first process. However, in subsequent processes, other materials may be added at various points.  At Tyler Company, materials are added at the beginning of each process. The entry to record the materials used is: Work in Process - Machining Work in Process - Assembly Raw Materials Inventory (To record materials used) XXXX XXXX Assignment of Manufacturing Costs: Journal Entries

22 In process costing, as in job order costing, time tickets may be used to determine the cost of labor assignable to the production departments. Since labor costs are assigned to a process rather than a job, the labor cost chargeable to a process can alternatively be obtained from the payroll register or departmental payroll summaries.  The entry to assign labor costs for Tyler is: Work in Process - Machining Work in Process - Assembly Factory Labor (To assign factory labor to production) XXXX XXXX Assignment of Manufacturing Costs: Journal Entries

23 The objective in assigning overhead in a process cost system is to allocate the overhead costs to the production departments on an objective and equitable basis. That basis is the activity that “drives” or causes the costs. A primary driver of overhead costs in continuous manufacturing operations is machine time used, not direct labor. Thus machine hours are widely used in allocating manufacturing overhead costs.  The entry to allocate overhead to Tyler’s processes is: Work in Process - Machining Work in Process - Assembly Manufacturing Overhead (To assign overhead to production) XXXX XXXX Assignment of Manufacturing Costs: Journal Entries

24 At the end of the month, entries are needed to record – the cost of the goods transferred from one processing department to the next, – the cost of goods transferred from the last processing department to Finished Goods Inventory, and – the costs of goods transferred from Finished Goods Inventory to Cost of Goods Sold. Assignment of Manufacturing Costs

25 Work in Process - Assembly Work in Process - Machining (To record transfer of units to Assembly Department) XXXX  These entries for Tyler Company are as follows: Finished Goods Inventory Work in Process - Assembly (To record transfer of units to Finished Goods) XXXX Cost of Goods Sold Finished Goods Inventory (To record cost of units sold) XXXX Assignment of Manufacturing Costs: Journal Entries

26 Compute equivalent units. Study Objective 5

27 Equivalent Units of Production Equivalent units of production measure the work done during the period, expressed in fully completed units. This concept is used to determine the cost per unit of completed product.

28 Equivalent Units of Production There are two methods of computing equivalent units.  The weighted-average method is the method most widely used in practice and will be discussed next.  The FIFO method is less frequently used and is discussed in advanced cost accounting classes.

29 Weighted-average Method The weighted-average method considers the degree of completion (weighting) of the units completed and transferred out and the ending work in process. The formula to compute equivalent units of production is: Units Completed and Transferred Out Equivalent Units of Ending Work in Process Equivalent Units of Production += Illustration 3-8

30 Weighted-average Method: Examples To better understand this concept of equivalent units, consider the following two examples: Example 1: The Blending Department’s entire output during the period consists of ending work in process of 4,000 units which are 60% complete as to materials, labor, and overhead. The equivalent units of production for the Blending Department are therefore 2,400 units (4,000 X 60%). Example 2: The Packaging Department’s output during the period consists of 10,000 units completed and transferred out, and 5,000 units in ending work in process which are 70% completed. The equivalent units of production for the Packaging Department are therefore 13,500 [10,000 + (5,000 X 70%)].

31 Refinements on the Weighted-average Method When materials are not added evenly throughout the processing (such as when all materials are added at the beginning of a process), Work in Process at the end of the period will have different completion percentages for materials and conversion costs (labor and overhead). Two equivalent unit computations will then be needed.

32 Refinements on the Weighted-average Method The earlier formula used to compute equivalent units of production can be refined to show the computations for materials and conversion costs, as follows: Units Completed and Transferred Out - Materials Equivalent Units of Ending Work in Process - Materials Equivalent Units of Production - Materials += Units Completed and Transferred Out - Conversion Costs Equivalent Units of Ending Work in Process - Conversion Costs Equivalent Units of Production - Conversion Costs += Illustration 3-11

33 Refined Weighted-average Method: Example To better understand this refined concept of equivalent units, consider the following example:  Kellogg Company makes Eggo ® Waffles. Three departments are used to produce these waffles: Mixing, Baking, and Freezing & Packaging. The following information relates to the Mixing Department. Illustration 3-9 Work in process, June 1 Started into production Total units Units transferred out Work in process, June 30 Total units Physical Units 100, , , , , ,000 Materials 100% 100% Conversion Costs 70% 60% Percentage Complete

34 Refined Weighted-average Method: Example  The previous slide indicates that the beginning work in process is 100% complete as to material cost and 70% complete as to conversion costs. In other words, all of the materials are added at the beginning of the process, while the conversion costs are incurred uniformly throughout the process and are 70% complete at the end of the period.  The units transferred out to the Baking Department are fully complete as to both materials and conversion costs.  The ending work in process is fully complete as to materials, but only 60% complete as to conversion costs.

35 Refined Weighted-average Method: Example Two equivalent unit computations are therefore necessary: one for materials and the other for conversion costs. These computations are shown below: Units transferred out Work in process, June ,000 X 100% 200,000 X 60% Total equivalent units Materials 700, , ,000 Conversion Costs 700, , ,000 Equivalent Units Notice that in computing equivalent units, the beginning work in process is not part of the formula. Illustration 3-10

36 Explain the four steps necessary to prepare a production cost report. Study Objective 6

37 Production Cost Report A production cost report is the key document used by management to understand the activities in a department because it shows the production quantity and cost data related to that department. For example, in producing Eggo ® Waffles, Kellogg Company would have three production cost reports: Mixing, Baking, and Freezing & Packaging.

38 Production Cost Report In order to be ready to complete a production cost report, the company must perform four steps: 1 Compute the physical unit flow. 2 Compute the equivalent units of production. 3 Compute unit production costs. 4 Prepare a cost reconciliation schedule. As a whole, these four steps make up the process costing system.

39 Comprehensive Example of Process Costing The next slides will present an extended example of the process costing system.

40 Comprehensive Example of Process Costing Assumed data for the Mixing Department at Kellogg Company for the month of June are shown on the next slide. We will use this information to complete a production cost report.

41 Comprehensive Example of Process Costing: Data Illustration 3-13 Units: Work in process, June 1 Direct materials: 100% complete Conversion costs: 70% complete Units started into production during June Units completed and transferred out to Baking Work in process, June 30 Direct materials: 100% complete Conversion costs: 60% complete Costs: Work in process, June 1 Direct materials: 100% complete Conversion costs: 70% complete Cost of work in process, June 1 Costs incurred during production in June Direct materials Conversion costs Costs incurred in June 100, , , ,000 $ 50,000 35,000 $ 85,000 $400, ,000 $570,000 Mixing Department

42 Compute the Physical Unit Flow (Step 1)  Physical units are the actual units to be accounted for during a period, irrespective of any work performed. Add the units started into production during the period to the units in process at the beginning of the period. This amount is referred to as the total units to be accounted for.  These units are then accounted for by the output of the period, which consists of units transferred out during the period, and any units in process at the end of the period. This amount is referred to as the total units accounted for.

43 Compute the Physical Unit Flow (Step 1) The flow of physical units for Kellogg Company for the month of June in the Mixing Department are shown below: Illustration 3-14 Units to be accounted for Work in process, June 1 Started (transferred) into production Total units Units accounted for Completed and transferred out Work in process, June 30 Total units Physical Units 100, , , , , ,000 Mixing Department

44 Compute Equivalent Units (Step 2)  Once the physical flow of the units is established, it is necessary to measure the Mixing Department’s productivity in terms of equivalent units of production.  In the Mixing Department, materials are added at the beginning of the process. Thus, two computations of equivalent units are required: one for materials and one for conversion costs.

45 The equivalent unit computation is as follows: (Remember that beginning work in process is ignored in this computation.) Compute Equivalent Units (Step 2) Illustration 3-15 Units transferred out Work in process, June ,000 X 100% 200,000 X 60% Total equivalent units Materials 700, , ,000 Conversion Costs 700, , ,000 Equivalent Units

46 Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3)  Armed with the knowledge of the equivalent units of production, we can now compute the unit production costs. Unit production costs are costs expressed in terms of equivalent units of production.  When equivalent units of production are different for materials and conversion costs, three unit costs are computed: (1) materials, (2) conversion, and (3) total manufacturing.

47 The computation of total materials cost related to Eggo ® Waffles is as follows: Illustrations 3-16 & 17 Work in process, June 1 Direct materials costs Costs added to production during June Direct materials costs Total materials costs $ 50, ,000 $450,000 Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) The computation of unit materials cost is as follows: Total Materials Cost Equivalent Units of Materials Unit Materials Cost  = $450, ,000 $.50  =

48 The computation of total conversion costs is as follows: Illustrations 3-18 & 19 Work in process, June 1 Conversion costs Costs added to production during June Conversion costs Total conversion costs $ 35, ,000 $205,000 Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) The computation of unit conversion cost is as follows: Total Conversion Cost Equivalent Units of Conversion Costs Unit Conversion Cost  = $205, ,000 $.25  =

49 Total manufacturing cost per unit is therefore computed as follows: Illustration 3-20 Compute Unit Production Costs (Step 3) Unit Materials Cost Unit Conversion Costs Total Manufacturing Cost per Unit + = $ $.75 + =

50 Prepare a Cost Reconciliation Schedule (Step 4) We are now ready to determine the cost of goods transferred out of the Mixing Department to the Baking Department and the costs in ending work in process. The total costs that were charged to the Mixing Department in June are as follows: Costs to be accounted for Work in process, June 1 Started into production Total costs $ 85, ,000 $655,000 Illustration 3-21

51 The total costs charged to the Mixing Department in June are therefore $655,000. A cost reconciliation schedule is then prepared to assign these costs to (1) units transferred out to the Baking Department and (2) ending work in process. Illustration 3-22 Prepare a Cost Reconciliation Schedule (Step 4) Costs accounted for Transferred out (700,000 x $.75) Work in process, June 30 Materials (200,000 x $.50) Conversion costs (120,000 x $.25) Total costs Mixing Department Cost Reconciliation Schedule $100,000 30,000 $525, ,000 $655,000

52 Prepare a Cost Reconciliation Schedule (Step 4)  The total manufacturing cost per unit of $.75 is used in costing the units completed and transferred to the Baking Department.  In contrast, the unit cost of materials and the unit cost of conversion are needed in costing units in process. The cost reconciliation schedule shows that the total costs accounted for equal the total costs to be accounted for.

53 Prepare a production cost report. Study Objective 7

54 Preparing the Production Cost Report  At this point, we are ready to prepare the production cost report for the Mixing Department.  As indicated earlier, this report is an internal document for management that shows production quantity and cost data for a production department.  The production cost report for the Mixing Department is shown on the next two slides. The four steps in preparing the report are highlighted. Production Cost Report

55 Mixing Department Production Cost Report For the Month Ended June 30, 1999 Illustration 3-23a QUANTITIES Units to be accounted for Work in process, June 1 Started into production Total units Units accounted for Transferred out Work in process, June 30 Total Units Materials 700, , ,000 Conversion Costs 700, , ,000 Equivalent Units Step 2 Physical Units Step 1 100, , , , , ,000

56 Mixing Department Production Cost Report For the Month Ended June 30, 1999 Illustration 3-23b COSTS Units costs Step 3 Costs in June Equivalent units Unit costs (a)  (b) Costs to be accounted for Work in process, June 1 Started into production Total costs Materials (a) $450,000 (b) 900,000 $.50 Conversion Costs $205, ,000 $.25 Total $655,000 $.75 Cost Reconciliation Schedule Step 4 Costs accounted for Transferred out (700,000 x $.75) Work in process, June 30 Materials (200,000 x $.50) Conversion costs (120,000 x $.25) Total costs $100,000 30,000 $ 85, ,000 $655,000 $525, ,000 $655,000

57 Production Cost Report  Production cost reports provide a basis for evaluating the productivity of a department.  In addition, the cost data can be used to assess whether unit costs and total costs are reasonable.  When the quantity and cost data are compared with predetermined goals, top management can also ascertain whether current performance is meeting planned objectives.

58 Final Comments  Companies often use a combination of a process cost and a job order cost system, called operations costing.  Operations costing is similar to process costing in that standardized methods are used to manufacture the product.  At the same time, the product may have some customized, individual features that require the use of a job order cost system.  A cost-benefit tradeoff occurs as a company decides which costing system to use.

59 Final Comments  A job order system, for example, provides detailed information related to the cost of the product. However, the cost of implementing a job order cost system is often expensive because of the accounting costs involved.  For some companies, an average cost of the product (such as provided under process costing) will suffice for control and pricing purposes.  In summary, when deciding which system to use, a company must weigh the cost of implementing the system against the benefits from the additional information provided.

60 Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that named in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. Copyright

61 Chapter 3 Process Cost Accounting


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