Expanding Democracy Changes Politics JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Election of 1824 “ In that era the candidates did not campaign themselves. The actual campaigning was left to managers and surrogates, and throughout the year various partisans spoke and wrote in favor of the candidates”. The election of 1824 involved three major figures, and was decided in the House of Representatives. –One man won (John Quincy Adams) –One helped him win (Henry Clay) –and One stormed out of Washington denouncing the entire affair as “the corrupt bargain.” (Andrew Jackson)
Expanding “Democracy” Changes Politics JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Tensions Between Adams & Jackson –In 1824, Andrew Jackson wins popular vote but NOT enough electoral votes –Jacksonian’s claim Adams-Clay struck a corrupt back-room bargain –Jacksonian’s form Democratic Party, group will work to block Adams policies Democracy and Citizenship –Most states ease voting qualifications; fewer require property to vote (4X number of voters) –In 1828, numerous new voters help Jackson
JACKSON’S NEW CAMPAIGN STYLE The Jackson campaign in 1828 was the first to appeal directly for voter support through a professional political organization. Skilled political organizers, like Martin Van Buren of New York, Amos Kendall of Kentucky, and Thomas Ritchie of Virginia, created an extensive network of campaign committees and subcommittees to organize mass rallies, parades, and barbecues, and to erect hickory poles, Jackson’s symbol – “Old Hickory” For the first time in American history, a presidential election was the focus of public attention, and voter participation increased dramatically. Twice as many voters cast ballots in the election of 1828 as in 1824, four times as many as in 1820.
Jackson’s New Presidential Style Jackson’s Appeal to Common Citizens –NEW Campaign Styles WORK –Martin Van Buren organizes people & money to get Jackson elected (modern party) –Slogans, Events, Nicknames, Symbols –“Old Hickory” –Jackson claims to be of humble origins, but in reality he is wealthy Says Adams is intellectual elitist Jackson WINS 1828 electing by a landslide
Jackson’s New Presidential Style “He was the first president to think of himself as the head of a democracy and claimed that he was the one to best represent the will of the people since-after all -only he had been elected by all of the people”. Jackson’s Spoil System - Patronage –Uses Spoils System (Patronage) replaces former appointees with his own friends/political supporters –Jackson limits appointments to federal jobs to four year terms –Becomes PRECEDENT that all other Presidents will follow
A Host of Friends become primary advisors, dubbed the Kitchen Cabinet –Anti-Jackson Northern Politicians attack Jackson through political cartoons & speeches – the attack Southern supporters and Southern political views –Anti-Jackson Northern Politicians & Newspapers Begin “Southern Stereotype” prejudiced ideas (slow, lazy, sloppy, stupid…) –Southern Stereotype is created and perpetuated through Northern political speeches / newspapers Jackson’s New Presidential Style
“He was the first president to think of himself as the head of a democracy and claimed that he was the one to best represent the will of the people since-after all -only he had been elected by all of the people”. Jackson’s Spoil System - Patronage –Uses Spoils System (Patronage) replaces former appointees with his own friends/political supporters –Jackson limits appointments to federal jobs to four year terms –Becomes PRECEDENT that all other Presidents will follow
Jacksonian Democracy –Increased Voting Rights in New States Election of 1824 Election of 1828 –Changes HOW CAMPAIGNS are Run NEW CAMPAIGN STYLE –Changes How Political Parties Work (Modern Democratic) –Changes the GOVERNMENT Brings COMMON Peoples Issues to the Federal Government Brings Southern States Issues SPOILS SYSTEM (PATRONAGE) Uses Power of VETO more than all presidents combined Native American’s Policy –Changes to REMOVAL –Cherokee and the “Trail of Tears” (Sectional Differences) STATES RIGHTS ISSUE –John C. Calhoun –Tarriff of Abominations –NULLIFICATION THEORY NATIONAL BANK WAR –Political fights with Northern Politicians and the Bank –Pet Banks –WHIG party formed to get rid of Andrew Jackson Van Buren Successor WHIGS take over
Battle of Fallen Timbers - Ohio Treaty of Greenville ( PATTERN for ) ( future Treaties ) ASSIMILATION “Rule of Law” –Set Boundary –Legal limits –Compensation $20,000 goods annual payment of $10,000 Policy of Native Americans
Removal of Native Americans Indian Removal Act of 1830 –Assimilation had been the government policy since George Washington –5 “civilized tribes” in South - Assimilate Chicksaw, Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole –Jackson’s Policy becomes more of Removal Thinks Assimilation cannot work Too many troops needed to keep settlers out of native lands Protect Natives from further conflicts over land
Removal of Native Americans Indian Removal Act of 1830 –GOLD discovered in Dahlonega,GA –Congress passes Indian Removal Act of 1830 Funds treaties to relocate Natives WEST –Jackson pressures tribes to agree to relocation in return for NEW compensation agreements The Cherokee Fight Back –Worcester v. Georgia – state cannot rule Cherokee or invade their land –Supreme Court rules in favor of Cherokee
Worchester v. Georgia (Ruling…) They are in direct hostility with treaties, repeated in a succession of years, which mark out the boundary that separates the Cherokee country from Georgia; guarantee to them all the land within their boundary; solemnly pledge the faith of the United States to restrain their citizens from trespassing on it; and recognize the pre-existing power of the nation to govern itself… The forcible seizure and abduction of the plaintiff, who was residing in the nation with its permission, and by authority of the President of the United States, is also a violation of the acts which authorize the chief magistrate to exercise this authority....
Removal of Native Americans Jackson “let them try to enforce the ruling” –Violation of Constitution –Violation of the principle “the rule of law” The Cherokee Fight Back –Some Cherokee try to continue court fight, minority favor relocation –Federal Agents sign treaty with minority, relocation begins –By 1838, 20,000 remain; President Van Buren orders removal
Removal of Native Americans TRAIL of TEARS –Cherokee sent west on “Trail of Tears”; 800 mile trip made on foot –Thousands will die on the journey
Section 4: “State Rights-National Bank Sectional Differences GROWING –North East v. New England –SOUTH Tariffs (North v. South) National Bank (North v. South) Andrew Jackson confronts Two Important Issues during his presidency –1) States Rights (Nullification) –2) National Bank Fight
Tariff Raises State’s Rights Issue Tariffs Increasing from time of Washington, Jefferson (Embargo), the Era of Good Feelings, and the “American System” encourage increase The Nullification Theory –British try to flood U.S. with cheap goods; tariff increased in 1824, 1828 –Tariffs cause Economic Depression – effects in the South –V-P John C. Calhoun (SC) calls 1828 tariff; Tariff of Abominations –Thinks South paying for North prosperity; cotton prices are low
Tariff Raises State’s Rights Issue Virginia / Kentucky Resolutions Alien & Sedition Acts Thomas Jefferson / James Madison The Nullification Theory –Calhoun devises the “Nullification Theory” Questions legality of applying federal law to states Constitution based on agreement among states State can reject laws it considers unconstitutional States have right to leave Union if nullification is denied
Tariff Raises State’s Rights Issue CONGRESSIONAL DEBATES over STATE Rights v. FEDERAL Rights Haynes (S) v. Webster (F) Debate State’s Rights –Senator Robert Haynes argues Southern viewpoint of Tariff, State’s Rights –Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts defends the Union –Jackson believes “Union Must Be Preserved”, Calhoun resigns as V-P in protest
Tariff Raises State’s Rights Issue South Carolina Rebels –S.C. declares 1828, 1832 tariffs NULL; threatens to Secede from the Union –Congress passes Force Bill, can use military force (army, navy) against S.C. if they do NOT follow the tariff (federal law) POTENTIAL MILITARY CONFLICT DEVELOPING –Henry Clay proposes tariff that lowers duties over 10 years HENRY CLAY’S COMPROMISE STATES RIGHTS ISSUES continue to GROW
Jackson Attacks the National Bank Jackson Opposes the National Bank –Believes the bank is privileged institution that favors the Wealthy / Northeastern Banks –Jackson vetoes bill to re-charter the Second National Bank of the United States Pet Banks (state banks) –Jackson puts federal money in state banks loyal to his Democratic Party –Bank President Nicholas Biddle tries but fails to save the bank
Against the wishes of Congress, Jackson ordered Treasury Secretary William John Duane to withdraw the federal government's deposits from the Bank of the United States. When Duane would not move the funds and refused to resign his position, Jackson fired him and replaced him with the more amenable Attorney General Roger Taney. This was the first time a president had fired a Cabinet official who, like all Cabinet heads, had been approved by the Senate. Jackson firmly believed Cabinet officials were beholden to him, not to Congress, and never doubted that he had an absolute right to remove Cabinet members without asking or even notifying the Senate. When Congress reconvened they passed a censure resolution against Jackson for removing the government deposits and taking upon himself 'power and authority not conferred by the Constitution or laws.' It was the first time a U.S. president had been censured.
Van Buren and Jackson Legacy Jackson’s Legacy –Martin Van Buren wins 1836 election with Jackson’s support –Pet Banks print notes in excess of gold, silver deposits –Government demands specie (gold, silver) to pay for public lands –Rush to exchange paper money for specie, banks stop taking money –Panic of 1837 - Bank Closings, collapse of credit system. People lose savings, businesses bankrupted More than 1/3 of population out of work –Van Buren tries to fix solve economic problems
AMERICAN HISTORY TRIVIA (Did You Know?) Americans say "OK" all the time. Do you know where the expression came from and what the letters stand for? "Old Kinderhook". When Martin Van Buren was running for reelection in 1840 against General William Henry Harrison, Harrison's nickname was "Tippecanoe" after the famous Indian battle he had won. During the campaign, Van Buren was subjected to a lot of disparaging nicknames. To change his public image, his supporters started calling him "Old Kinderhook" for his home town of Kinderhook, NY. The Democrats formed the OK Club to show that Van Buren was alright by them. The term then became part of the vernacular of the nation. He lost anyway!
Jackson Attacks the National Bank Whig Party Forms –Many people unhappy with Jackson Jacksonian Democrats Democratic-Republicans –King Andrew I (too strong) –Form WHIG Party Support the American System
Van Buren and Jackson Legacy Harrison and Tyler –Whig - William Henry Harrison beats Van Buren in 1840 Election (“tippecanoe and tyler too!”) CAMPAIGN STYLES: Slogans, Buttons, Entertainment, Images / Propaganda Harrison Symbols: Log Cabin, Cider= Common Man –Harrison implements Whig program to Re-Vitalize / Fix the economy –Dies one month in office; succeeded by John Tyler (V-P) Tyler opposes many parts of the economic plan
Jacksonian Democracy –Increased Voting Rights in New States Election of 1824 Election of 1828 –Changes HOW CAMPAIGNS are Run NEW CAMPAIGN STYLE –Changes How Political Parties Work (Modern Democratic) –Changes the GOVERNMENT Brings COMMON Peoples Issues to the Federal Government Brings Southern States Issues SPOILS SYSTEM (PATRONAGE) Uses Power of VETO more than all presidents combined Native American’s Policy –Changes to REMOVAL –Cherokee and the “Trail of Tears” STATES RIGHTS ISSUE –John C. Calhoun –Tarriff of Abombinations –NULLIFICATION THEORY NATIONAL BANK WAR –Political fights with Northern Politicians and the Bank –Pet Banks –WHIG party formed to get rid of Andrew Jackson Van Buren Successor WHIGS take over Democratic Party