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The Crises of the 14 th Century 1300-1450 Age of sorrow and temptation, of tears, jealousy and torment, Time of exhaustion and damnation, declining to.

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Presentation on theme: "The Crises of the 14 th Century 1300-1450 Age of sorrow and temptation, of tears, jealousy and torment, Time of exhaustion and damnation, declining to."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Crises of the 14 th Century Age of sorrow and temptation, of tears, jealousy and torment, Time of exhaustion and damnation, declining to extinction, Era filled with horror and deception, lying, pride and envy, Time without honor and meaning, full of life-shortening sadness. - Eustache Deschamps

2 Legacy of the Crusades 1096 – ca “Re-acquaintance” with Western past 2. Exposure to Eastern goods 3. Accentuated political and religious rivalries 4. Decline of the Byzantine Empire 5. “Jihad”

3 Hey, lil’ fella Xenopsylla cheopis

4 I. The Black Death bubonic, pneumonic, septicemic

5 A. Disaster in the making 1. Nearly all arable land taken 2. “Little” Ice Age ca – 1700+

6 B. Legacy of the plague 6, 14, 18th centuries 137M (1/4 - 1/3 of Europe in 1300s - 34M)

7 2. The Great Leveler Hans Holbein The Dance of Death the Kingthe Queenthe Pope

8 2. Europe subject to invasion Mongols s Ottoman Turks & 1600s

9 3. Plagues of insurrection - weakening of social bonds - persecution - peasant revolt Jacquerie 1358 Wat Tyler’s Revolt 1381

10 Crises of moral authority paves the way for Renaissance, Reformation. The Triumph of Death Bruegel

11 II. 100 Years War

12 A. Causes 1.Angevin Empire - Henry & Eleanor 1152 Vassalage v. Nation-state 2. Edward III 1329

13 3. Manufacturing - Flemish wool trade

14 B. Conduct of the War 1.English occupation - soldiers fend for themselves End of Chivalry

15 C. Assault on authority 1. Yeomen archers - Crécy 1346 / Agincourt Battle of Formingy gunpowder Men in armor losing significance

16 3. Joan of Arc - Battle of Orleans 1429

17 III. Division in Christendom Religious controversy and challenges for the Church

18 1. Urban social orders - merchants, craftsmen - “class,” not hereditary obligations 2. Alternative to feudal orders - tweaking of theology

19 A. Limits of reason Aristotelianism Scholasticism

20 B. Avignon Papacy 1. Clement V & Philip IV suppression of Knights Templar - moved papacy to Avignon “Whore of Babylon”

21 2. Gregory XI Rome, most of Europe wants Italian Pope - Charles (V) Valois 3. Great (Western) Schism Popes a’plenty - Council of Constance antiPope John XXIII

22 C. Legacy of division 1. Worsened by contemporary problems - papacy in the eyes of both clergy and lay people 2. Opened door for theological and literary challenges to Church hegemony

23 IV. Cultural change in crisis

24 A. Theological challenges 1. John Wycliffe quality of sacrament - Church authority

25 2. Jan Hus religion and nationalism - language č š ž

26 3. Increased threat of Heresy - Waldensians no authority but the Bible - Albigensiansextreme ascetism “Heretics” often preached austerity not found in Church, popular w/ peasants The Inquisition “what a show”

27 4. William of Ockham Argued against Aristotelian theory - must argue from specific to general Ockham’s razor scientific method

28 B. Vernacular literature 1. Reliance on Latin declines - expression of cultural, national, religious independence (Gutenberg press)

29 2. Dante Alighieri The Divine Comedy allegory – historical figures, contemporary critique Redemption of Man – in Italian! “Abandon hope, all ye who enter here”

30 3. Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales middle English - ribald, low brow comedy, social satire Wife of Bath

31 4. Christine de Pizan City of Ladies a. status of aristocratic women improving b. all levels of patriarchy challenged

32 Giovanni Boccaccio The Decameron Juan Ruiz The Book of Good Love - “Mr. Melon of the Vegetable Garden”


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