7The American Revolution and the War of 1812 allowed our nation to have a common heritage. We were proud to be Americans.The Era of Good Feelings
8Eventually, Americans started to think the government should take action to increase prosperity in the U.S.However, each region started wanting different things.This became known as sectionalism.The U.S. eventually broke into 3 regions; they were the North, the South, and the West.
9The 3 regions of the U.S. disagreed on: SlaveryTrade restrictions (tariffs)A second national bankInternal improvementsChanges made to the U.S. such as new transportation (canals, roads)
10The SpokesmenThree Congressmen started to speak on behalf of their regions:John C. Calhoun (South)Daniel Webster (North)Henry Clay (West)
12John C. Calhoun Spokesperson for the South Planter in South Carolina Supported internal improvements, developing industries, and a national bankAt one time Calhoun believed in a strong Federal government; BUT eventually he thought states should hold more power.
16Henry Clay From Kentucky Supported Western states Tried to solve Sectional differencesWanted national unity through compromise (Missouri Compromise-we’ll talk about this later!)Created the American systemStimulate growth of U.S. industryInternal improvements
17Warm Up Question: What were the four topics that divided the nation at this time?
18SlaveryTrade restrictions (tariffs)A second national bankInternal improvements
19Dealing With Other Nations 10.2Dealing With Other Nations
20Complete the chart using the following slides. 10.2 NotesComplete the chart using the following slides.
21Foreign Relations Relations with Britain: Rush-Bagot Treaty: Limited number of naval vessels that the U.S. and Britain could have on the Great Lakes.DISARMAMENT- the removal of weaponsConvention of 1818:Set the Boundary between U.S. and Canada (49th parallel)Gain right to settle Oregon
23Foreign Relations Relations with Spain: Adams-Onis Treaty: U.S. gains Florida gives up Spanish TexasU.S. pays $5 million in “damages”Land Northwest of 42 parallelRelations with Europe:Monroe Doctrine:- The U.S. will not interfere with existing European colonies in America- The U.S. will oppose any new European settlements in America!- Key aspect of U.S. foreign policy
25Warm up:How did the United States get Florida from the Spanish?
26Answer:Spain was losing power over its colonies in the Americas. The Spanish knew the U.S. could easily take the territory over so when the U.S. offered to buy the land Spain agreed. The Adams-Onis Treaty
28Four people ran for president in 1824, including: Election of 1824Four people ran for president in 1824, including:John Quincy AdamsAndrew JacksonHenry ClayWilliam CrawfordNO candidate won a majority of electoral votesJackson won plurality (The largest single share)Election had to be decided in the House of RepresentativesSpeaker of the House Henry Clay made a “corrupt bargain” with J.Q. Adams. Adams became president. Clay became Sec. of StateFYI: Another political party developed…the Anti- Jacksons (called the Whigs)
29J. Q. Adams’ Presidency He acted against popular opinion Wanted: Strong NavyScientific expeditions in the westFederal control of the economyThis terrified the majority of people who believed that the states’ should have more power.Sectionalism continued to be a problem in the U.S.
30Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams (Again!) The Election of 1828Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams (Again!)
31The race for the White House in 1828 pitted incumbent John Quincy Adams against Andrew Jackson. The beginning of the 1828 campaign revealed little difference between the two candidates on the major political issues of the day. It became obvious that the race would be a personality contest and that Jackson had the clear lead. Faced with this reality, the Adams camp injected scandal into their campaign.
32Read “A Historical Perspective” (handout) Adams's supporters hurled charges adultery, gambling, murder, and corruption against Jackson. Jackson’s supporters retaliated with charges of adultery against Adams and his wife. The campaign descended into a mudslinging contest.Things became so mean that Jackson believed that Adams’ attack killed his wife.Jackson was America's first "Frontier President" – the first president who did not come from the nation’s east-coast elite. His victory was seen as a triumph for the common man and for democracy. The celebration of his inauguration was an opportunity for America’s ordinary citizen to rejoice.Read “A Historical Perspective” (handout)
33Mudslinging Campaign Song John Quincy Adams: According to the song, what will happen is John Quincy Adams is not elected?
34Outcome of 1828 Election Jackson won by a landslide 1st frontier president
35Jackson’s LegacyWatch the video about how Andrew Jackson changed the American Presidency.
36Election Changes Jacksonian Democracy Jackson’s supporters wanted to make the voting system more democratic:Eliminated the caucus systemPolitical candidates chosen by CongressmenCreated nominating conventionsDelegates selected a party’s candidate based on the people’s vote
37Changes in Voting What is suffrage? The right to vote Who was able to vote before 1815?White men who owned property or paid taxesIn the 1820’s laws were loosenedMany states overlooked the property ownership requirement and suffrage spread.
38Spoils System“To the victory go the spoils…”Jackson replaced some government officials with his campaign supporters.He believed that he was expanding democracy by these actions.
39Warm UpThe Election of 1828 was vicious. What tactic was used in the 1828 election?
40Mudslinging-attempts to ruin an opponent’s reputation with insults. Warm UpMudslinging-attempts to ruin an opponent’s reputation with insults.
42What was Indian Removal? A plan carried out by President Jackson to help the U.S. expand westwardRemove Native Americans from land east of the Mississippi RiverRelocate them to the “Indian Territory”—land west of the Mississippi River, present day OklahomaUnfair to NativesLots of suffering and thousands died along the trips westward
44(led by Black Hawk)-chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo tribes Who was involved?Native Americans(led by Black Hawk)-chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo tribesVS.AmericansBlack Hawk
45When did the Black Hawk War occur? April-August ,1832
46Where did the Black Hawk War occur? Illinois and Wisconsin (then part of Michigan Territory)
47General Henry Atkinson What Happened?The Native Americans had land in Illinois and Wisconsin.In the 1820’s, the U.S. took it away. They forced Black Hawk’s people to sign treaties giving up their land.Black Hawk had already fought against the Americans in the War of Now, as white settlers began plowing land that was sacred to Native Americans, he was ready to fight again. His forces began raiding outlying white settlements. U.S. troops under General Henry Atkinson pursued the Sauk and Fox across northern Illinois and into Wisconsin. They caught up with them where the Bax Axe River flows into the Mississippi. Black Hawk surrendered, but Akinson’s men opened fire anyway, killing 200 women, children and warriors. Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned for a year. Then he rejoined the remnants of his tribe on a reservation in Iowa.It was the last Indian war east of the Mississippi River.General Henry Atkinson
48Jefferson Davis (Confederate President) Also fought in the war. Did you know…Abraham Lincoln enlisted in an Illinois militia unit during the Black Hawk War. He became a captain, but did not see action.Jefferson Davis (Confederate President) Also fought in the war.
50Congress paid Indians for their land Indian Removal ActCongress paid Indians for their land=
51Removing the Indians was one of Andrew Jackson’s campaign promises Indian Removal ActRemoving the Indians was one of Andrew Jackson’s campaign promises
52Trail of TearsThere were five tribes that were associated with the Trail of Tears.They were the:The ChoctawThe ChickasawThe SeminoleThe CreekThe Cherokee (This tribe’s story is the most closely associate with The Trail of Tears)
53The Cherokee NationThe Cherokee refused to leave and go to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma)Cherokee Chief, JohnRoss led the refusalto move west
54Georgia did not recognize the Cherokees as a nation The Cherokee NationGeorgia did not recognize the Cherokees as a nationThe Cherokees sued the state of Georgia to try and remain on their land
55Worcester vs. GeorgiaDecision: Native Americans were protected by the U.S. Constitution. This meant they didn’t have to move west
56Worcester vs. GeorgiaPresident Jackson ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling and sent troops to Georgia
57Trail of TearsGeneral Winfield Scott and 7,000 federal troops forced the Cherokee Indians to move
58Thousands of Cherokee died during the journey (brutal weather) Trail of TearsFighting would lead to their destruction so The Cherokee had no choice but to leave their land during the winter ofThousands of Cherokee died during the journey (brutal weather)
60The Cherokee often refer to the Trail of Tears as the Trail where they Cried because of the death and sadness they experienced
61The Seminole Wars Briefly describe the events that took place: The U.S. government tried to force the Natives Americans of Florida to relocate to the Indian Territory.Some Seminoles relocated immediately, others resisted the forced movement and used guerilla tactics against the U.S.A number of Native American leaders were imprisoned during the wars.A third Seminole War would later take place.Name and explain two important people in this event:Osceola-led the Seminole resistance movementMajor Dade-led the U.S. army against the SeminolesAndrew Jackson-led multiple campaigns to removed Native Americans from FloridaWho was involved?The U.S. and the Seminole tribeWhen did the wars take place?Two wars andWhere did the wars take place?Throughout Florida
63Warm up: Explain one of the following: Trail of Tears Seminole Wars Black Hawk War
64Trail of Tears-The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation and movement of Native Americans from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United StatesThe Black Hawk War- Fought in 1832 in the Midwestern U.S. The war was named for Black Hawk a war chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo tribes.They fought against the U.S. Army and militia from Illinois and the Michigan Territory (present-day Wisconsin) for possession of lands in the area.Seminole Wars -The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Seminoles and the U.S.
65States’ Rights and the Economy 10.5States’ Rights and the Economy
66The Bank WarThe Second Bank of the United States earned strong support from business people.On the other hand, many Americans disliked the Bank. They opposed the way the bank restricted loans made by state banks. This limited the amount of money the banks could lend, which angered farmers and merchants.
67War! Against the Bank “I have always been afraid of banks." Jackson“…when laws… make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society—farmers, mechanics, and laborers– who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their Government.”
68Although many Americans thought Jackson took too much power as president, most agreed with his veto of the bank and he won reelection in 1832.Shortly after he was reelected he decided to “kill the bank!”He withdrew all government deposits and the bank was forced to shut down.
69The Tariff Debate What is a Tariff? A fee paid by merchants on imported goodsIn 1828 a high tariff was passed by Congress against European manufactured goods.More people bought American goodsBUT the South was upsetThey traded cotton with Europe so this hurt their economy
70Nullification CrisisThe South responded by trying to nullify the tariffStates had a right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law it considered unconstitutionalSome southern states wanted to secede, or break away from the U.S.Basically this was a conflict over how much power the federal government should have
71Tariff of 1832Congress passed this to try to solve the problem in the southIt was a lower tariffIt did not please the south
72Jackson’s response:“I feel in the depths of my soul that it is the highest, most sacred, and most irreversible part of my obligation to preserve the union of these states, although it may cost me my life.”
73Force BillIt allowed Jackson to enforce any acts of Congress with military force!
74South Carolina Threatens to Secede South Carolina voted to nullify the tariffsThey also warned the federal govt. not to use force to impose the tariffsJackson was furious. He issued a “Proclamation to the People of South Carolina.” It said that the Union could not be dissolvedUnable to win support from other states, South Carolina then repealed its tariff nullification
75Election of 1836- Martin Van Buren He was Jackson’s Vice PresidentElected in 1836 over the Whig partyThe Whigs were a group of people who disliked Jackson
76Van Buren’s Presidency During his term in office, a depression occurred.The people who had supported Jackson turned against Van Buren and the Whigs gained groundHowever, Van Buren ran for president again in 1840
77Election of 1840- General William Henry Harrison The Whigs chose him as their candidateThey used a log cabin campaign to get him electedThey labeled him as a common man of the people!
79Death of a PresidentJohn Tyler becomes president 32 days after Harrison took office. 1st Vice-President to gain the presidency because the elected president died in office.No major accomplishments.
80Warm UpFinish the table-Presidents and their V-Ps 1-Washington, Adams 2- Adams, _____________ 3-Jefferson, Burr and Clinton 4-James Madison, Clinton and Gerry 5-___________, Tompkins 6-J.Q.Adams, _____________ 7-________, Calhoun and Van Buren 8-Van Buren, ____________ 9-Harrison, John Tyler 10-Tyler, none
81Warm UpFinish the table 1-Washington, Adams 2- Adams, Jefferson 3-Jefferson, Burr and Clinton 4-James Madison, Clinton and Gerry 5-James Monroe, Tompkins 6-J.Q.Adams, Calhoun 7-Jackson, Calhoun and Van Buren 8-Van Buren, Johnson 9-Harrison, John Tyler 10-Tyler, none