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JOE FUNDERBURK, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Applying Ecological Knowledge: Vertically Integrated IPM Using Thrips, Tospoviruses, and Vegetables As An Example.

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Presentation on theme: "JOE FUNDERBURK, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Applying Ecological Knowledge: Vertically Integrated IPM Using Thrips, Tospoviruses, and Vegetables As An Example."— Presentation transcript:

1 JOE FUNDERBURK, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Applying Ecological Knowledge: Vertically Integrated IPM Using Thrips, Tospoviruses, and Vegetables As An Example Photo Cheryle O’Donnell

2 PEST STATUS OF INVASIVE FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS Certain biological characteristics aid successful invasion where it causes extensive crop damage, vectors viral diseases, and permanently destabilizes IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance… Morse and Hoddle Annual Review of Entomology

3 IPM for the practitioner encompasses the simultaneous management of multiple pests, regular monitoring of pests and their natural enemies or antagonists, use of economic thresholds when applying pesticides, and integrated use of multiple suppressive tactics… Ehler Pest Management Science 62: Vertical IPM: integration of multiple, compatible tactics to control one group of pests such as arthropods or pathogens or weeds Horizontal IPM: integration of multiple, compatible tactics to control more than one group of pests

4 EXTENSION GROUP of THRIPS/VERTICAL IPM ACTION TEAM Joe Funderburk, Norm Leppla, Phil Stansly, Oscar Liburd, Lance Osborne, Greg Nuessly, Catherine Mannion, Hugh Smith, Steven Arthurs, Amanda Hodges, Dave Schuster, Susan Webb, Dak Seal, Alicia Whidden, Crystal Snodgrass, Dan Mullens, David Sui, Gene McAvoy, Lester Muralles, Mary Lamberts, Waldy Klassen, Silvia Shives, Mary Beth Henry, Lelan Parker, Juanita Popenoe, Bill Schall, Alex Bolques, Gary Knox, Steve Olson, Jim Price PROGRAM OBJECTIVES 1.Increase profitability of farming 2.Assure availability of pesticides 3.Increase growers adopting UF IPM Program 4.Increase growers who vertically integrate management of pests

5 MANAGEMENT/VERTICALLY INTEGRATED PROGRAMS FOR THRIPS AND TOSPOVIRUSES IN FLORIDA PEPPER & EGGPLANT TOMATO BLUEBERRY STRAWBERRY Jim Price, Joe Funderburk others developing GREEN BEAN Greg Nuessly others developing CUCURBITS Susan Webb, Dak Seal developing ORNAMENTALS Steve Arthurs, Lance Osborne

6 Tomato spotted wilt virus symptoms on pepper Flecking on pepper due to feeding by western flower thrips

7 POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THRIPS IN COMMERCIAL PEPPER IN SOUTH FLORIDA PALM BEACH COUNTY 1995/96 PALM BEACH COUNTY 2006/07 Frantz & Mellinger Florida Entomologist 92:29-34.

8 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE, ECONOMICAL, & SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS FOR THRIPS AND TOSPOVIRUSES IN VEGETABLES Define pest status (economic thresholds) Increase biotic resistance (natural enemies and competition) Integrate preventive and therapeutic tactics (scout, uv- reflective technology, biological control, insecticides, companion plants, fertility, irrigation, etc.) Vertically integrate program for thrips (focus management on pest complex rather than individual pests) Continuously improve program and communicate knowledge (research, EDIS pubs, website, farm demonstrations, meetings, assess implementation and benefits)

9 Capacity of minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus, to reduce thrips populations Predator-Prey Ratio Management Guides 1 predator per about 180 thrips = population suppression 1 predator per 50 thrips = control Photo Joe Funderburk

10 OriusF. occidentalis adultsthrips larvae Pirate bugs Thrips per flower untreated fenpropathrin spinosad per flower May & June 1996 Funderburk, Stavisky &Olson 2000 PEPPER

11 INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION Interspecific competition and population dynamics of thrips on crop and uncultivated hosts. Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips palmi are out-competed by native species of thrips. Paini, Funderburk, & Reitz Journal of Animal Ecology 77: Paini, Funderburk, Jackson,&Reitz Journal of Entomological Science 42: Northfield, Paini, Funderburk, & Reitz Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101:

12 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PEPPER & EGGPLANT 1.In scouting program, distinguish between adult and larval thrips and identify adult thrips to species 2.Economic thresholds: about 6 western flower thrips per flower and about 2 thrips larvae per fruit (identifying species of larvae is not necessary-all equally damaging) 3.Do not treat for Florida flower thrips and eastern flower thrips as they outcompete western flower thrips 4.When peppers are flowering, use insecticides for thrips and other pests that conserve minute pirate bugs 5.When peppers are flowering and early fruit set, do not use insecticides that induce western flower thrips 6.Use ultraviolet-reflective mulch when forming beds 7.Sunflower and other refugia to provide a source for minute pirate bugs 8.Vertically integrate management of thrips and other pests including pepper weevil and lepidoptera 9.Follow BMP’s for fertility and water management

13 INSECTICIDES FOR WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS IN FRUITING VEGETABLES Radiant ®Good control of adults & larvae-minimize applications to 2 per season Assail ® & Torac®Control of adults & larvae-broad spectrum-do not use during flowering & early fruit set Cyazypyr ®Suppression or in rotation with other insecticides (label expected late 2012/early 2013) Beleaf ® Suppression or in rotation with other insecticides Movento ®Suppression especially after 2 applications (must use with Induce ® nonionic wetter/spreader adjuvant) Requiem ®Suppression especially after 2 applications Lannate ®Control of adults & larvae-broad spectrum-do not use during flowering and early fruit set M-Pede ® & EcoTrol ®Weak suppression

14 INSECTICIDES THAT CONSERVE MINUTE PIRATE BUGS SPINOSYNSthrips and other pests REQUIEMthrips, aphids, whiteflies SPIROTETRAMATthrips, aphids, whiteflies CYAZYPYRthrips, aphids, whiteflies, and other pests FLONICAMIDthrips, aphids, whiteflies, and other pests M-PEDEthrips, aphids, whiteflies, spidermites METHOXYFENOXIDElepidoptera INDOXACARBlepidoptera Bt’slepidoptera, coleoptera ECOTROLthrips, aphids, whiteflies AZADIRACHTINvarious taxa CYROMAZINEDipteran leafminers FENBUTATINmites PYMETRAZINEwhiteflies, aphids

15 INSECTICIDES KNOWN TO INDUCE WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS & MELON THRIPS Synthetic Pyrethroids are strong inducers (never use) Neonicotinoids sometimes have some inducing effect (careful use) Broad-spectrum carbamates and organophosphates should be avoided generally

16 Vertically integrated management scheme for thrips and other pests in pepper INSECTICIDES FOR NON- THRIPS PESTS BEFORE FLOWERING Therapeutic control with insecticides that are short residual, especially those not systemic INSECTICIDES FOR NON-THRIPS PESTS DURING FLOWERING Therapeutic control with insecticides that conserve Orius INSECTICIDES FOR NON-THRIPS PESTS DURING FRUITING Therapeutic control with labeled insecticides INSECTICIDES FOR THRIPS DURING FLOWERING Rotate insecticides for therapeutic control with insecticides that conserve Orius Radiant, Beleaf, Requiem, Movento (Cyazypyr in 2012/2013) INSECTICIDES FOR THRIPS DURING FRUITING No more than 2 applications during the same season of insecticides from the same chemical class Radiant, Assail, Beleaf, Requiem, Movento, Lannate Torac (Cyazypyr in 2012/2013)

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18 Dimples on tomato due to oviposition of Frankliniella occidentalis Flecking on tomato due to feeding by Frankliniella occidentalis Ring spots and fruit deformity from tomato spotted wilt infection

19 Recommendations for western flower thrips in tomato Distinguish between adult and larval thrips and identify adult thrips to species Economic thresholds: about 1 western flower thrips per flower and about 2 larvae per fruit Do not treat for Florida flower thrips and eastern flower thrips as they outcompete western flower thrips Alternate between efficacious insecticides Avoid using insecticides that induce western flower thrips populations Use Ultraviolet-reflective mulch and other technologies Vertically integrate management program for thrips with management of other pests and diseases including whiteflies and Lepidoptera, and whitefly-vectored viruses and other tomato diseases Follow BMP’s for fertility and water management

20 CROP FERTILITY AND POPULATIONS OF FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS Stavisky, Funderburk, Brodbeck, Olson, & Andersen J. Economic Entomology Number per tomato flower

21 THRIPS HOST PLANT DETECTION & SELECTION Terry Host Selection, Communication, & Reproductive Behavior, In Thrips As Crop Pests (Lewis, Ed.) CAB INTERNATIONAL THRIPS LOCATE HOSTS USING COLOR, SHAPE, SIZE, & VOLATILES WITH ANTHOPHILOUS THRIPS ATTRACTED TO LOW UV WHITES, YELLOWS, AND BLUES ONCE A POTENTIAL HOST IS CONTACTED THEN ODOR, TACTILE, & GUSTATORY CUES PREDOMINATE

22 COMMERCIAL UV-REFLECTIVE PRODUCTS AS TACTICS FOR ARTHROPOD MANAGEMENT Plastic mulches (many products from multiple sources for farm or garden with varying levels of UV-reflectance) UV-reflective barriers and repellents (many products for many uses such as greenhouse covers, row covers, tubes, etc.) Kaolin clay (Surround ® WP, Engelhard Corp.) multiple modes of action including UV- reflectance

23 BLACK & UV-REFLECTIVE MULCHES RAISED-BED PLASTIC MULCH SYSTEM TYPICAL IN CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA

24 KAOLIN CLAY-SURROUND®

25 SPRING TOMATOES, NORTH FLORIDA 2011 COURTESY KARA TYLER-JULIAN

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27 Tomato spotted wilt virus DISEASE EPIDEMIOLOGY PRIMARY SPREAD-TRANSMITTING THRIPS ADULTS ACQUIRED VIRUS AS LARVAE BY FEEDING ON PLANTS GROWING OUTSIDE FIELD SECONDARY SPREAD-ADDITIONAL CYLCES WHERE ACQUISITION BY THRIPS LARVAE AND TRANSMISSION BY THRIPS ADULTS OCCURS BY FEEDING ON PLANTS WITHIN THE SAME CROP FIELD

28 SPREAD OF Tomato spotted wilt virus IN NORTHERN FLORIDA TOMATOES Primary infection 72% Secondary infection 28% Momol et al Plant Disease 88:

29 % Incidence of Tomato Spotted Wilt As Affected By UV-Reflective Mulch & Insecticides for Thrips Control in North Florida Tomatoes Momol, Olson, Funderburk, Stavisky, Marois Plant Disease

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31 Role of Ultraviolet-Reflective Products for Managing Western Flower Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt in Fruiting Vegetables Highly-reflective UV mulch reduces western flower thrips until mid-season Foliar-applied kaolin suppresses western flower thrips UV-reflective technologies affect other insect groups including natural enemies such as minute pirate bugs UV-reflective technologies reduce primary and secondary spread of tomato spotted wilt by repelling the thrips vectors capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus Complete recommendations for tomato Complete recommendations for pepper and eggplant

32 Tactics useful in managing primary and secondary spread of tomato spotted wilt virus and other tospovirus species PRIMARY SPREAD SECONDARY SPREAD Resistant cultivars UV-reflective technologies UV-reflective technologies SAR inducer SAR inducer Optimal fertility Optimal fertility Insecticides for suppression of thrips larvae

33 Insecticide management scheme for western flower thrips and tospoviruses Preflowering Thrips are not damaging Insecticides do not control primary spread tospovirus Flowering Dimples, flecking Alternate insecticides Rotate Radiant, Assail, Beleaf, Requiem, Movento, Lannate Torac (Cyazypyr in 2012/2013) Fruitiung Flecking, secondary spread tospovirus Rotate Radiant, Assail, Beleaf, Requiem, Movento, Lannate Torac (Cyazypyr in 2012/2013)

34 SPRING SWEET PEPPERS SOUTH FLORIDA 2011 COURTESY KARA TYLER-JULIAN

35 PLANTS AS SOURCES & SINKS OF ARTHROPOD POPULATIONS Refugium: plants that provide habitat for arthropod populations especially natural enemies to avoid changes in crop especially pesticides Companion Plant: plants grown in proximity to crop that assists in pest management Banker Plant: plants used to introduce an established population of a natural enemy to a crop Trap Crop: plants that attract agricultural pests away from nearby crops

36 Push/Pull Strategies Using Companion Plants and UV-Reflecting Technologies Bidens near tomatoHelianthus near pepper

37 Cultural methods of thrips management Intercrop types Refugium-Plants used to provide habitat for arthropods to avoid crop changes such as pesticides Companion plants- Plants grown near crops that assist the crops in some way i.e. pest management Banker Plants- Intercrops used for establishing natural predators Trap crops-Intercrops that are more attractive to pests than the crop 2011 Tomato trials North Florida 2011 Pepper trials South Florida Efficacy of cultural methods -UV reflective mulch most effective at beginning of season -Kaolin clay most effective middle-end of season -Companion plants most effective at middle-end of season. -Bidens alba: banker crop/refugium for minute pirate bugs on tomatoes. -Sunflower: banker crop, trap crop, refugium for peppers. -Bidens alba and tomatoes: poor reproductive hosts for thrips -Peppers and sunflowers: good reproductive hosts for thrips Number per 1 flower

38 OUTCOMES/IMPACTS-2007 TO PRESENT 1.Field Demonstrations- NFREC (5), GCREC (1), PALM BEACH COUNTY (2), HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY (2) 2.Publications- BOOK CHAPTERS (1), REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES (5), EDIS ARTICLES (5), TRADE JOURNALS (4) 3.Workshops & In-Service Trainings- INTERNATIONAL (19), NATIONAL (3), FLORIDA/COUNTY (19 TOTAL-955 PARTICIPANTS) 4.Thrips Website- 50,000 DOWNLOADS IN 2010; 7,725 HITS EDIS PUBLICATIONS Effective, Economical, Sustainable IPM Programs- 90% GROWERS SURVEYED GAINED KNOWLEDGE 85% GROWERS SURVEYED ADOPTED IPM PROGRAM INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE MONITORING SHOWED RESISTANT THRIPS POPULATIONS RETURNING TO SUSCEPTIBILITY PALM BEACH COUNTY PEPPER GROWERS SAVED $28.8 MILLION IN 2010 IN YIELD GAINS AND REDUCED PESTICIDE USE


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