Presentation on theme: "Agenda Essential Question: What are the basics of music notation? Review Terms tonality, rhythm, melody, form, theme, variations, rondo, timbre, harmony,"— Presentation transcript:
Agenda Essential Question: What are the basics of music notation? Review Terms tonality, rhythm, melody, form, theme, variations, rondo, timbre, harmony, tempo, dynamics, overture, piano, forte, crescendo, decrescendo, phone words Opener/Lecture: 20 minutes Grab your folders and the handout on the front table. Answer the questions in this Power Point on your provided answer sheet. Music Notation: 30 minutes Review of Clefs, Notes, and Rests New Material: Time Signatures Individual Work:30 minutes Writing Music on the Staff Instrument Stations Closure: 10 minutes Music reading quiz
Find you group # on the desks! Group 1: Jermisha Ryan Melissa Daquitta Phillip Denise Group 2: Caressa Jamal Gary Jessica Tyler Embra Group 3: Shakayla Michael K. William S. Ashley Joemichael Group 4: Kayla Kristianna Lawrence Michael Q. Quinina Sierra
Find you group # on the desks! Group 1: Jermisha Melissa Daquitta Denise Kristianna Group 2: Jamal Gary Jessica Sierra Group 3: Shakayla Michael K. William S. Ashley Group 4: Kayla Lawrence Michael Q. Qunina Tyler
Agenda Essential Question: What are the basics of music notation? Review Terms tonality, rhythm, melody, form, theme, variations, rondo, timbre, harmony, tempo, dynamics, overture, piano, forte, crescendo, decrescendo, phone words Opener/Lecture: 20 minutes Grab the handout on the front table. Answer the questions in this Power Point on your provided answer sheet. Listening Guide: 30 minutes Music Listening Guide Instruments and Questions: 50 minutes – 10 minutes at each Groups of 5 – everyone must take a turn on each instrument! Closure: 10 minutes Timbre Quiz – Based on Instruments
How did music pass from one person to another? If you wanted to learn a song, you would have to learn it aurally. Learning a song aurally requires you to hear the music, copy it, and commit it to memory.
The next few centuries is the medieval era, or otherwise referred to as the dark ages. This is a time in human history where we did not advance forward, but in some respects, backwards.
During this time the Church becomes the center of society. It was a time where people where attending mass every day, sometimes mass was held every hour of the day.
With all the people and masses, came the need for music. To be heard in the large buildings, several voices needed to sing together to fill the building.
These voices singing in unison acted as a natural microphone and filled the building.
Even with several voices together, there was a need for new chants and hymns. At this time all music was still memorized, but with all the new music, it was to difficult to keep adding new material.
In the twelfth century a monk named “Guido D’azarro came up with a method for keeping the choir together.
He would point to a spot on his hand, which would indicate a pitch, and it became known as the “Guido hand method”.
This worked for the slow, simple tunes, but his abbey was so astounded that they thought it was witchcraft and threw him out.
Guido was soon taken in by another abbey, and he also soon dropped the method of pointing to his hand, as the music became more complex.
Guido was aware that musicians used some manuscripts with neums. Neums were square notes that generally indicated what direction the pitch was directed. Since the singer already knew the piece and just needed to be reminded of where in the chant he was.
Guido began to write a red line through the neums to indicate where a specific voice range was to centered (i.e. alto voice). Above is an actual picture of Guido’s writing.
Next Guido added more lines to control more voices.
For the bass and tenor vocal part, he added more lines and marked the tenor line in yellow with the starting pitch of “f”.
One problem with this system, was Guido had not fixed a clef to a specific line. Guido had pitches starting anywhere and on any line. This made reading music hard to read.
So in the next century the successors to Guido still experimented with adding lines to the staff. Can you tell where one staff ends and another begins?
It will take another couple of centuries for our current grand staff to be adopted.
So What happened to Guido? Guido showed his work to his abbot, but this time instead of being thrown out, he was commended for his work.
His abbot liked it so much that he sent him to Rome to meet with the Pope. The Pope liked his work so much that he sent Guido all around the country to teach as many priest and monks this new system of reading notes.
Eventually, Guido ended back with his original abbey, who welcomed him in, and said they were sorry for ever doubting him.
The End. PowerPoint by Val Iven – North Marion Intermediate School http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/refarticle.aspx?refid=761552863 http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b3atilla_p1dz.htm http://www.realm-of-shade.com/zarathustra/attila.html http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02061b.htm http://www.boglewood.com/timeline/attila.html http://www.stanford.edu/~moore/HistoryEcon.html http://www.propheticwitness.org/gregory_the_great.htm http://guidoshandrocks.com/historyofname/ http://italian.about.com/library/weekly/aa092700c.htm
Music Packet Bass and Treble Clef Notes on the scale Time Signatures Measures
Instrument Stations Station 1: Guitar Station 2: Djembe Drum Station 3: Bass Guitar Station 4: Piano Be careful with these instruments! They belong to me and I don’t want them destroyed! I am being REALLY nice bringing them into class!
Directions: As a group, read the handout and answer the question sheet pertaining to your instrument. Next, look at the board or provided information to play the instrument. Everyone must take a turn and attempt to play the instrument. I will come around and help you figure out chords and rhythms on the instruments.
Guitar The guitar is a musical instrument with ancient roots that adapts readily to a wide variety of musical styles. It typically has six strings, but four-, seven-, eight-, ten-, eleven-, twelve-, thirteen- and eighteen-string guitars also exist. The size and shape of the neck and the base of the guitar also vary, producing a variety of sounds. The three main types of guitars are the electric guitar, the classical guitar, and the acoustic guitar. Sometimes the last two are put in the same category.stringsfour-seven- eight-ten-eleven-twelve-thirteen-eighteen-stringelectric guitar classical guitaracoustic guitar Guitars are recognized as one of the primary instruments in flamenco, jazz, blues, country, mariachi, rock music, and many forms of pop. They can also be a solo classical instrument. Guitars may be played acoustically, where the tone is produced by vibration of the strings and modulated by the hollow body, or they may rely on an amplifier that can electronically manipulate tone. Such electric guitars were introduced in the 1930s, and they have continued to have a profound influence on popular culture since then.flamencojazz bluescountrymariachirock musicpopsolo classical instrumentacousticallyamplifierelectric guitarspopular culture Traditionally guitars have usually been constructed of combinations of various woods and strung with animal gut, or more recently, with either nylon or steel strings. Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers. There are many brands of guitars, but some commonly known brands are Fender, Gibson, Dean, Gretsch, Ibanez, Martin, Jackson, Schecter, Taylor, Paul Reed Smith, B.C. Rich, ESP and Yamaha.luthiersFenderGibson DeanGretschIbanezMartinJacksonSchecterTaylorPaul Reed Smith B.C. RichESPYamaha
Djembe Drum A djembe is a skin-covered hand drum shaped like a large goblet and meant to be played with bare hands. According to the Bamana people in Mali, the name of the djembe comes directly from the saying "Anke dje, anke be" which literally translates to "everyone gather together" and defines the drum's purpose. In the Bamanakan language, "Dje" is the verb for "gather" and "be" translates as "everyone". Legend has it that the first djembes were made from the skin of the mythical cross between a giraffe and a zebra, the 'gebraffe'.hand drumgoblet giraffezebra It is a member of the membranophone family of musical instruments: a frame or shell (in the djembe's case it is a wood shell) covered by a membrane or drumhead made of rawhide or some other material. Djembes are commonly about 12" (30 cm) in diameter and 24" (60 cm) in height, varying a few inches. They can also be found in many smaller sizes, from 5" (13 cm) to 18" (46 cm) in diameter. As a result of the goblet shape, the density of the wood, the internal carvings, and the skin, there is a wide range of tones that can be produced by the djembe. The rounded shape with the extended tube of the djembe body forms a device known in physics as a Helmholtz resonator, giving it its deep bass note. The primary notes are generally referred to as "bass", "tone", and "slap", though a variety of other tones can also be produced by advanced players. The slap has a high and sharp sound, the tone is more round and full, and the bass is low and deep.membranophonemembranedrumhead rawhide goblettonesHelmholtz resonator Some Africans consider the ashiko to be male and the djembe female, while others believe the opposite is true.ashiko
Bass Guitar The electric bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb (either by plucking, slapping, popping, tapping, or thumping), or by using a plectrum.stringed instrumentfingers thumb plectrum The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, but with a larger body, a longer neck and scale length, and usually four strings tuned to the same pitches as those of the double bass,  which correspond to pitches one octave lower than those of the four lower strings of a guitar (E, A, D, and G).  The bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds (as is the double bass) in order to avoid the excessive use of ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the electric bass guitar is plugged into an amplifier and speaker for live performances.electric guitarneckscalestringspitchesdouble bass octave transposing instrumentbass clefledger linesamplifier and speaker Since the 1950s, the electric bass guitar has largely replaced the upright bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While the types of basslines performed by the bass guitarist vary widely from one style of music to another, the bass guitarist fulfills a similar role in most types of music: anchoring the harmonic framework and laying down the beat. The bass guitar is used in many styles of music including rock, metal, pop, country, blues, and jazz. It is used as a soloing instrument in jazz, fusion, Latin, funk, and in some rock and metal (mostly technical death metal and progressive metal) styles. popular musicrhythm section basslinesrockmetalpopcountrybluesjazz fusionLatinfunkrockmetaltechnical death metalprogressive metal
Piano The piano is a musical instrument which is played by means of a keyboard. Widely used in Western music for solo performance, ensemble use, chamber music, and accompaniment, the piano is also very popular as an aid to composing and rehearsal. Although not portable and often expensive, the piano's versatility and ubiquity have made it one of the most familiar musical instruments.musical instrumentkeyboardWestern musicchamber musicaccompaniment composingrehearsal Pressing a key on the piano's keyboard causes a felt covered hammer to strike steel strings. The hammers rebound, allowing the strings to continue vibrating at their resonant frequency.  These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a sounding board that couples the acoustic energy to the air so that it can be heard as sound. When the key is released, a damper stops the string's vibration. Pianos are sometimes classified as both percussion and stringed instruments. According to the Hornbostel-Sachs method of music classification, they are grouped with chordophones.felt steelresonant frequency  bridgesounding boardcouplesclassifiedpercussionstringed instrumentsHornbostel-Sachschordophones The word piano is a shortened form of the word pianoforte, which is seldom used except in formal language and derived from the original Italian name for the instrument, clavicembalo [or gravicembalo] col piano e forte (literally harpsichord with calm and strong). This refers to the instrument's responsiveness to keyboard touch, which allows the pianist to produce notes at different dynamic levels by controlling the speed with which the hammers hit the strings.Italian harpsichordpianist
Electric Guitar An electric guitar is a guitar that uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to convert vibrations of its strings into electric signals. Since the generated signal is too weak to drive a loudspeaker, it is amplified before sending it to a loudspeaker. Since the output of an electric guitar is an electric signal, the signal may easily be altered using electronic circuits to add greatness to the sound. Often the signal is modified using effects such as reverb and distortion. Arguably, no other musical instrument has had more of an impact on how music has evolved since the beginning of the twentieth century than the electric guitar. Conceived in 1931, the electric guitar became a necessity as jazz musicians sought to amplify their sound. Since then, it has evolved into a stringed musical instrument capable of a multitude of sounds and styles. It served as a major component in the development of rock and roll and countless other genres of music.guitarelectromagnetic inductionsignalsloudspeakeramplifiedreverbdistortionrock and roll
Electric Guitar Questions 1.Electric guitar converts string vibrations to ____________ signals. 2.What happens to the signal before getting to the speaker? 3.Name two ways the signal can be modified. 4.This instrument impacted the music of what century? 5.What genre of music did it help create?
Instrument information gathered from wikipedia.org