Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and Aquatic Biodiversity G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s Environmental Science 10 th Edition Chapter 6 G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and Aquatic Biodiversity G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s Environmental Science 10 th Edition Chapter 6 G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and Aquatic Biodiversity G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s Environmental Science 10 th Edition Chapter 6 G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s Environmental Science 10 th Edition Chapter 6

2 Key Concepts  Factors influencing weather and climate  Effect of climate on distribution of biomes  Characteristics of major biome types  Saltwater and freshwater life zones  Human impacts on biosphere

3 Blowing in the Wind Fig. 6-1, p. 106  Benefits of wind  Hazards of wind  “Red Tides”  Volcanoes and climate  Everything is connected

4 Weather and Climate  What is weather?  How meteorologists predict weather  What is climate?

5 Factors Associated with Climate  Temperature  Precipitation  Uneven heating  Seasons  Earth’s rotation  Properties of air and water Fig. 6-2 p. 107

6 Polar (ice) Subarctic (snow) Cool temperate Warm temperate Dry Tropical Highland Major upwelling zones Warm ocean current Cold ocean current River Fig. 6-3, p. 108 Global Climatic Zones

7 Seasons Fig. 6-4 p. 108

8 Fig. 6-5, p. 109 Fig. 6-8, p. 107 Global Air Circulation And Biomes

9 Wind Movement of surface water Diving birds Nutrients Upwelling Fish Zooplankton Phytoplankton Fig. 6-6, p. 110 Shore Upwelling

10 El Niño-Southern Oscillation: ENSO Fig. 6-7, p. 110

11 El Niño Unusually warm periods Unusually high rainfall Drought Fig. 6-8, p. 111 Global Climatic Effects of ENSO

12 Greenhouse Effect Fig. 6-9, p. 111

13 Greenhouse Effect  Greenhouse Effect  Greenhouse gases  Human impact  Global warming  Impacts of global warming

14 Ozone Layer  Located in stratosphere  UV protection  Decline in ozone  Consequences of ozone decline

15 Microclimates Fig. 6-10, p. 112  Rain shadow effect a Winds carry moisture inland from Pacific Ocean b Clouds, rain on windward side of mountain range c Rain shadow on leeward side of mountain range Moist habitats Dry habitats  Cities  Land-ocean interactions

16 Biomes  Climatic effects on biomes  Not uniform  “Mosaic of patches”  Effects of latitude and altitude

17 Dry woodlands and shrublands (chaparral) Temperate grassland Temperate deciduous forest Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest) Arctic tundra (polar grasslands) Tropical savanna, thorn forest Tropical scrub forest Tropical deciduous forest Tropical rain forest, tropical evergreen forest Desert Ice Mountains (complex zonation) Semidesert, arid grassland Tropic of Capricorn Equator Tropic of Cancer Fig. 6-11, p. 113 Earth’s Major Biomes

18 Precipitation and Temperature Affects Biome Type Fig. 6-12, p. 114

19 Mountain Ice and snow Altitude Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow Latitude Fig. 6-13, p. 114 Effects of Altitude and Latitude on Climate and Biomes

20 Biomes: Climate and Life  Desert biomes  Forest biomes  Mountain biomes  Grassland biomes  Aquatic biomes

21 Deserts  What is a desert?  Tropical deserts  Temperate deserts  Cold deserts  Semideserts  Unique properties of desert life

22 Fungi Gambel's quail Red-tailed hawk Collared lizard Jack rabbit Yucca Kangaroo rat Agave Roadrunner Diamondback rattlesnake Darkling beetle Darkling beetle Bacteria Prickly pear cactus Prickly pear cactus Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fig. 6-14, p. 115 Temperate Desert Ecosystem

23 Major Human Impacts on Deserts Large desert cities Soil destruction by vehicles and urban development Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of underground water supplies Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Storage of toxic and radioactive Wastes Large arrays of solar cells and solar collectors used to produce electricity Fig. 6-15, p. 116

24 Grasslands  Effects of drought, herbivores and fires  Savanna  Grazers and browsers  Prairies  Veldt  Tundra and permafrost

25 Dry GrasslandMoist Grassland WarthogThompson's gazelle WaterbuckGrant's zebra Beisa oryx Topi Cape buffaloWildebeest Fig. 6-16a, p. 117 Grazing Animals of the African Savanna (Dry and Moist Grasslands)

26 Dry Thorn ScrubRiverine Forest Dik-dikEast African eland Blue duikerGreater kudu Bushbuck Black rhino Giraffe African elephant Gerenuk Fig. 6-16b, p. 117 Grazing Animals of the African Savanna (Scrub and Forest Lands)

27 Fig. 6-17, p. 118 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Bacteria Golden eagle Prairie dog Blue stem grass Blue stem grass Coyote Grasshopper sparrow Grasshopper sparrow Pronghorn antelope Prairie coneflower Prairie coneflower Temperate Tall-grass Prairie Ecosystem

28 Replacing Temperate Grassland with Farms DO NOT POST TO INTERNET Fig. 6-18, p. 119

29 Human Impacts on Grasslands Conversion of savanna and temperate grassland to cropland Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock Damage to fragile arctic tundra by oil production, air and water pollution, and vehicles Fig. 6-19, p. 119

30 Forests  What is a forest?  Tropical forests  Broadleaf evergreen plants  Deciduous forests  Evergreen coniferous (boreal) forests  Muskegs  Coastal forests

31 Fig. 6-20, p. 120 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Bacteria Bromeliad Ants Tree frog Green tree snake Katydid Climbing monstera palm Squirrel monkeys Blue and gold macaw Harpy eagle Ocelot Slaty-tailed trogon Slaty-tailed trogon Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem

32 Harpy eagle Toco toucan Wooly opossum Brazilian tapir Black-crowned antpitta Shrub layer Canopy Emergent layer Understory Ground layer Ground layer Height (meters) Fig. 6-21, p. 121 Stratification of Niches: Tropical Rain Forest

33 Fig. 6-22, p. 122 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Bacteria Fungi Wood frog Racer Shagbark hickory White-tailed deer White-footed mouse White oak Gray squirrel Hairy woodpecker Broad-winged hawk Long-tailed weasel Long-tailed weasel May beetle Mountain winterberry Mountain winterberry Metallic wood-boring beetle and Metallic wood- boring beetle and larvae Temperate Deciduous Forest Ecosystem

34 Fig. 6-23, p. 123 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Bacteria Bunchberry Starflower Fungi Snowshoe hare Bebb willow Moose Wolf Balsam fir Blue jay Great horned owl Great horned owl White spruce White spruce Pine sawyer beetle and larvae Marten Evergreen Coniferous (Boreal or Taiga) Forest Ecosystem

35 Human Impacts on Forests Clearing and degradation of tropical forests for agriculture, livestock grazing, and timber harvesting Clearing of temperate deciduous forests in Europe, Asia, and North America for timber, agriculture, and urban development Clearing of evergreen coniferous forests in North America, Finland, Sweden, Canada, Siberia, and Russia Conversion of diverse forests to less biodiverse tree plantations Fig. 6-24, p. 124

36 Mountains  What is a mountain?  Ecological importance of mountains  “Islands of biodiversity”  Climate regulation  Mountain glaciers and affects on sea level  Hydrologic cycle  Human impacts on mountains

37 Human Impacts on Mountains Landless poor migrating uphill to survive Timber extraction Mineral resource extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism (such as hiking and skiing) Air pollution from industrial and urban centers Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Fig. 6-25, p. 124

38 Aquatic Environments: Types and Characteristics  Aquatic life zones  Saltwater (marine) systems  Freshwater systems

39 Mangroves Coral reefs Rivers Lakes Fig. 6-26, p. 125 The Aquatic World

40 Organisms in Aquatic Life Zones  Plankton  Nekton  Benthos  Decomposers

41 Factors Limiting Life with Water Depths  Temperature  Sunlight (photosynthesis; euphotic zone)  Dissolved oxygen  Nutrients (net primary productivity)

42 Saltwater (Marine) Life Zones  Coastal zone  Estuaries  Coastal wetlands  Mangroves  Intertidal zones (shores)  Coral reefs  Open ocean

43 Ocean hemisphereLand-ocean hemisphere The Ocean Planet Fig. 6-27, p. 126

44 Marine Biodiversity Cobia Hogfish Kelp Carrageen Pacific sailfish Batfish Yellow jack Moray Red snapper Red algae Striped drum Angelfish Bladder kelp Sea lettuce Orange roughy Chinook salmon Great barracuda Porcupine fish Devilfish Laminaria Sockeye salmon Grouper Chilean sea bass Dulse Fig. 6-28, p. 126

45 Marine Systems Ecological Services Climate moderation CO 2 absorption Nutrient cycling Waste treatment and dilution Reduced storm impact (mangrove, barrier islands, coastal wetlands) Habitats and nursery areas for marine and terrestrial species Genetic resources and biodiversity Scientific information Economic Services Food Animal and pet feed (fish meal) Pharmaceuticals Harbors and transportation routes Coastal habitats for humans Recreation Employment Offshore oil and natural gas Minerals Building materials © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Fig. 6-29, p. 127 Natural Capital: Marine Systems

46 High tide Low tide Coastal Zone Estuarine Zone Continental shelf Open Sea Sea level Sun Euphotic Zone Bathyal Zone Abyssal Zone Depth in meters Photosynthesis 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 10,000 Darkness Twilight © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Ocean Zones Fig. 6-30, p. 128

47 Sediment Plume in an Estuary DO NOT POST TO INTERNET Figure 6-31, p. 128

48 Fig. 6-32, p. 129 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Herring gulls Snowy egret Peregrine falcon Cordgrass Short-billed dowitcher Marsh periwinkle Bacteria Clamworm Soft-shelled clam Zooplankton and small crustaceans Phytoplankton Smelt Salt Marsh Ecosystem

49 Sea starHermit crabShore crab Nudibranch Monterey flatworm KelpSea lettuce Barnacles Sea urchin Anemone Low tide Mussel Periwinkle High tide Sculpin Fig. 6-33a, p. 130 Rocky Shore Beach

50 Silversides Blue crab Low tide Dwarf olive Clam Beach flea Tiger beetle High tide Ghost shrimp Mole shrimp Sandpiper Peanut worm White sand macoma Sand dollarMoon snail Fig. 6-33b, p. 130 Barrier Beach

51 OceanBeach Intensive recreation, no building Primary Dune No direct passage or building Trough Limited recreation and walkways Secondary Dune No direct passage or building Bay or Lagoon Intensive recreation Back Dune Most suitable for development Grasses or shrubsTaller shrubs Taller shrubs and trees Bay shore No filling Primary and Secondary Beach Dunes Fig. 6-34, p. 131

52 Fig. 6-35, p. 132 Coral Reefs

53 Ocean warming Soil erosion Algae growth from fertilizer runoff Mangrove destruction Coral reef bleaching Rising sea levels Increased UV exposure from ozone depletion Using cyanide and dynamite to harvest coral reef fish Coral removal for building material, aquariums, and jewelry Damage from anchors, ships, and tourist divers Fig. 6-36, p. 133 Major Threats to Coral Reefs

54 Half of coastal wetlands lost to agriculture and urban development Over one-third of mangrove forests lost since 1980 to agriculture, development, and aquaculture shrimp farms About 10% of world’s beaches eroding because of coastal development and rising sea level Ocean bottom habitats degraded by dredging and trawler fishing boats Over 25% of coral reefs severely damaged and 11% have been destroyed Fig. 6-37, p. 133 Human Impacts on Marine Systems

55 Freshwater Life Zones  Standing water  Flowing water Fig. 6-40, p. 135

56 Bluegill Bulrush White bass Brook trout White waterlily Water lettuce Bowfish Water hyacinth Largemouth black bass Bladderwort Black crappie White sturgeon Yellow perch Velvet cichlid Walleyed pike American smelt Eelgrass Longnose gar Common piranha Carp Channel catfish Egyptian white lotus African lungfish Rainbow darter Muskellunge Fig. 6-38, p. 134 Freshwater Biodiversity

57 Freshwater Systems Ecological ServicesEconomic Services Climate moderation Nutrient cycling Waste treatment and dilution Flood control Groundwater recharge Habitats for aquatic and terrestrial species Genetic resources and biodiversity Scientific information Food Drinking water Irrigation water Hydroelectricity Transportation corridors Recreation Employment © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Fig. 6-39, p. 135 Natural Capital: Freshwater Systems

58 Life Zones in Lakes  Littoral zone  Limnetic zone  Profundal zone  Benthic zone  Littoral zone  Limnetic zone  Profundal zone  Benthic zone

59 Nutrients in Lakes: Oligotrophic Fig. 6-41a, p. 136

60 Nutrients in Lakes: Eutrophic Fig. 6-41b, p. 136

61 Stream Systems  Runoff  Watershed  Drainage basin  Floodplain Fig. 6-42, p. 136

62 Inland Wetlands  Importance of Wetlands  Types:  Marshes  Swamps  Prairie potholes  Floodplains  Bogs and fens  Tundra  Seasonal  Importance of Wetlands  Types:  Marshes  Swamps  Prairie potholes  Floodplains  Bogs and fens  Tundra  Seasonal

63 Human Impacts on Freshwater Systems  Dams, diversions and canals  Flood control levees and dikes  Wetland destruction  Dams, diversions and canals  Flood control levees and dikes  Wetland destruction

64 Sustainability of Aquatic Life Zones  Pollution  Natural renewal  Ecology: “Everything is connected”  Pollution  Natural renewal  Ecology: “Everything is connected”


Download ppt "Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and Aquatic Biodiversity G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s Environmental Science 10 th Edition Chapter 6 G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google