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Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and Aquatic Biodiversity

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Presentation on theme: "Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and Aquatic Biodiversity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and Aquatic Biodiversity
G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s Environmental Science 10th Edition Chapter 6

2 Key Concepts Factors influencing weather and climate
Effect of climate on distribution of biomes Characteristics of major biome types Saltwater and freshwater life zones Human impacts on biosphere

3 Blowing in the Wind Benefits of wind Hazards of wind “Red Tides”
Volcanoes and climate Everything is connected Fig. 6-1, p. 106

4 Weather and Climate What is weather?
How meteorologists predict weather What is climate?

5 Factors Associated with Climate
Temperature Precipitation Uneven heating Seasons Earth’s rotation Properties of air and water Fig. 6-2 p. 107

6 Global Climatic Zones Fig. 6-3, p. 108 Polar (ice) Warm temperate
Highland Warm ocean current Subarctic (snow) Dry Major upwelling zones Cold ocean current Cool temperate Tropical River Fig. 6-3, p. 108

7 Seasons Fig. 6-4 p. 108

8 Global Air Circulation And Biomes
Fig. 6-8, p. 107 Fig. 6-5, p. 109

9 Shore Upwelling Fig. 6-6, p. 110 Wind Movement of surface water
Diving birds Nutrients Upwelling Fish Zooplankton Phytoplankton Fig. 6-6, p. 110

10 El Niño-Southern Oscillation: ENSO
Fig. 6-7, p. 110

11 Global Climatic Effects of ENSO
El Niño Unusually warm periods Unusually high rainfall Drought Fig. 6-8, p. 111

12 Greenhouse Effect Fig. 6-9, p. 111

13 Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse gases Human impact
Global warming Impacts of global warming

14 Ozone Layer Located in stratosphere UV protection Decline in ozone
Consequences of ozone decline

15 Microclimates Rain shadow effect Cities Land-ocean interactions
a Winds carry moisture inland from Pacific Ocean b Clouds, rain on windward side of mountain range c Rain shadow on leeward side of Moist habitats Dry habitats Fig. 6-10, p. 112

16 Biomes Climatic effects on biomes Not uniform “Mosaic of patches”
Effects of latitude and altitude

17 Earth’s Major Biomes Fig. 6-11, p. 113 Dry woodlands and
shrublands (chaparral) Temperate grassland Temperate deciduous forest Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest) Arctic tundra (polar grasslands) Tropical savanna, thorn forest Tropical scrub forest Tropical deciduous forest Tropical rain forest, tropical evergreen forest Desert Ice Mountains (complex zonation) Semidesert, arid grassland Tropic of Capricorn Equator Cancer Fig. 6-11, p. 113

18 Precipitation and Temperature Affects Biome Type
Fig. 6-12, p. 114

19 Effects of Altitude and Latitude on Climate and Biomes
Mountain Ice and snow Altitude Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Tropical Deciduous lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow Latitude Fig. 6-13, p. 114

20 Biomes: Climate and Life
Desert biomes Grassland biomes Forest biomes Mountain biomes Aquatic biomes

21 Deserts What is a desert? Tropical deserts Temperate deserts
Cold deserts Semideserts Unique properties of desert life

22 Temperate Desert Ecosystem
Red-tailed hawk Gambel's quail Yucca Collared lizard Jack rabbit Agave Prickly pear cactus Roadrunner Diamondback rattlesnake Darkling beetle Bacteria Fungi Kangaroo rat Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fig. 6-14, p. 115

23 Major Human Impacts on Deserts
Large desert cities Soil destruction by vehicles and urban development Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of underground water supplies Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Storage of toxic and radioactive Wastes Large arrays of solar cells and solar collectors used to produce electricity Fig. 6-15, p. 116

24 Grasslands Savanna Grazers and browsers Prairies Veldt
Effects of drought, herbivores and fires Savanna Grazers and browsers Prairies Veldt Tundra and permafrost

25 Grazing Animals of the African Savanna (Dry and Moist Grasslands)
Dry Grassland Moist Grassland Warthog Thompson's gazelle Waterbuck Grant's zebra Beisa oryx Topi Cape buffalo Wildebeest Fig. 6-16a, p. 117

26 Grazing Animals of the African Savanna (Scrub and Forest Lands)
Dry Thorn Scrub Riverine Forest Dik-dik East African eland Blue duiker Greater kudu Bushbuck Black rhino Giraffe African elephant Gerenuk Fig. 6-16b, p. 117

27 Temperate Tall-grass Prairie Ecosystem
Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary Secondary to higher-level All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Bacteria Golden eagle Prairie dog Blue stem grass Coyote Grasshopper sparrow Pronghorn antelope coneflower Fig. 6-17, p. 118

28 Replacing Temperate Grassland with Farms
Fig. 6-18, p. 119 DO NOT POST TO INTERNET

29 Human Impacts on Grasslands
Conversion of savanna and temperate grassland to cropland Release of CO2 to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock Damage to fragile arctic tundra by oil production, air and water pollution, and vehicles Fig. 6-19, p. 119

30 Forests What is a forest? Tropical forests Broadleaf evergreen plants
Deciduous forests Evergreen coniferous (boreal) forests Muskegs Coastal forests

31 Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem Fig. 6-20, p. 120 Harpy Ocelot Blue and
Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary Secondary to higher-level All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Bacteria Bromeliad Ants Tree frog Green tree snake Katydid Climbing monstera palm Squirrel monkeys Blue and gold macaw Harpy eagle Ocelot Slaty-tailed trogon Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem Fig. 6-20, p. 120

32 Stratification of Niches: Tropical Rain Forest
Harpy eagle Toco toucan Wooly opossum Brazilian tapir Black-crowned antpitta Shrub layer Canopy Emergent Understory Ground 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Height (meters) Fig. 6-21, p. 121

33 Temperate Deciduous Forest Ecosystem Fig. 6-22, p. 122 Bacteria Fungi
Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary Secondary to higher-level All producers and consumers to decomposers Bacteria Fungi Wood frog Racer Shagbark hickory White-tailed deer White-footed mouse White oak Gray squirrel Hairy woodpecker Broad-winged hawk Long-tailed weasel May beetle Mountain winterberry Metallic wood-boring beetle and Metallic wood- boring beetle and larvae Temperate Deciduous Forest Ecosystem Fig. 6-22, p. 122

34 Evergreen Coniferous (Boreal or Taiga) Forest Ecosystem
Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary Secondary to higher-level All producers and consumers to decomposers Bacteria Bunchberry Starflower Fungi Snowshoe hare Bebb willow Moose Wolf Balsam fir Blue jay Great horned owl White spruce Pine sawyer beetle and larvae Marten Evergreen Coniferous (Boreal or Taiga) Forest Ecosystem Fig. 6-23, p. 123

35 Human Impacts on Forests
Clearing and degradation of tropical forests for agriculture, livestock grazing, and timber harvesting Clearing of temperate deciduous forests in Europe, Asia, and North America for timber, agriculture, and urban development Clearing of evergreen coniferous forests in North America, Finland, Sweden, Canada, Siberia, and Russia Conversion of diverse forests to less biodiverse tree plantations Fig. 6-24, p. 124

36 Mountains What is a mountain? Ecological importance of mountains
“Islands of biodiversity” Climate regulation Mountain glaciers and affects on sea level Hydrologic cycle Human impacts on mountains

37 Human Impacts on Mountains
Landless poor migrating uphill to survive Timber extraction Mineral resource extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism (such as hiking and skiing) Air pollution from industrial and urban centers Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Fig. 6-25, p. 124

38 Aquatic Environments: Types and Characteristics
Aquatic life zones Saltwater (marine) systems Freshwater systems

39 The Aquatic World Mangroves Coral reefs Rivers Lakes Fig. 6-26, p. 125

40 Organisms in Aquatic Life Zones
Plankton Nekton Benthos Decomposers

41 Factors Limiting Life with Water Depths
Temperature Sunlight (photosynthesis; euphotic zone) Dissolved oxygen Nutrients (net primary productivity)

42 Saltwater (Marine) Life Zones
Open ocean Coastal zone Estuaries Coastal wetlands Mangroves Intertidal zones (shores) Coral reefs

43 Land-ocean hemisphere
The Ocean Planet Ocean hemisphere Land-ocean hemisphere Fig. 6-27, p. 126

44 Marine Biodiversity Fig. 6-28, p. 126 Cobia Hogfish Kelp
Carrageen Pacific sailfish Batfish Yellow jack Moray Red snapper Red algae Striped drum Angelfish Bladder kelp Sea lettuce Orange roughy Chinook salmon Great barracuda Porcupine fish Devilfish Laminaria Sockeye salmon Grouper Chilean sea bass Dulse Fig. 6-28, p. 126

45 © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
Marine Systems Ecological Services • Climate moderation • CO2 absorption • Nutrient cycling • Waste treatment and dilution • Reduced storm impact (mangrove, barrier islands, coastal wetlands) • Habitats and nursery areas for marine and terrestrial species • Genetic resources and biodiversity • Scientific information Economic Services • Food • Animal and pet feed (fish meal) • Pharmaceuticals • Harbors and transportation routes • Coastal habitats for humans • Recreation • Employment • Offshore oil and natural gas • Minerals • Building materials Natural Capital: Marine Systems © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Fig. 6-29, p. 127

46 © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
Ocean Zones High tide Low tide Coastal Zone Estuarine Zone Continental shelf Open Sea Sea level Sun Euphotic Zone Bathyal Zone Abyssal Zone Depth in meters 50 100 200 Photosynthesis 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 10,000 Darkness Twilight Fig. 6-30, p. 128 © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

47 Sediment Plume in an Estuary
DO NOT POST TO INTERNET Figure 6-31, p. 128

48 Salt Marsh Ecosystem Fig. 6-32, p. 129 Smelt Peregrine falcon
Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary Secondary to higher-level All producers and consumers to decomposers Herring gulls Snowy egret Peregrine falcon Cordgrass Short-billed dowitcher Marsh periwinkle Bacteria Clamworm Soft-shelled clam Zooplankton and small crustaceans Phytoplankton Smelt Salt Marsh Ecosystem Fig. 6-32, p. 129

49 Rocky Shore Beach Fig. 6-33a, p. 130 Sea star Hermit crab Shore crab
Nudibranch Monterey flatworm Kelp Sea lettuce Barnacles Sea urchin Anemone Low tide Mussel Periwinkle High tide Sculpin Fig. 6-33a, p. 130

50 Barrier Beach Fig. 6-33b, p. 130 Silversides Blue crab Low tide Dwarf
olive Clam Beach flea Tiger beetle High tide Ghost shrimp Mole Sandpiper Peanut worm White sand macoma Sand dollar Moon snail Fig. 6-33b, p. 130

51 Primary and Secondary Beach Dunes
Ocean Beach Intensive recreation, no building Primary Dune No direct passage or building Trough Limited recreation and walkways Secondary Dune No direct passage or building Back Dune Most suitable for development Bay or Lagoon Intensive recreation Bay shore No filling Grasses or shrubs Taller shrubs Taller shrubs and trees Fig. 6-34, p. 131

52 Coral Reefs Fig. 6-35, p. 132

53 Major Threats to Coral Reefs
Ocean warming Soil erosion Algae growth from fertilizer runoff Mangrove destruction Coral reef bleaching Rising sea levels Increased UV exposure from ozone depletion Using cyanide and dynamite to harvest coral reef fish Coral removal for building material, aquariums, and jewelry Damage from anchors, ships, and tourist divers Fig. 6-36, p. 133

54 Human Impacts on Marine Systems
Half of coastal wetlands lost to agriculture and urban development Over one-third of mangrove forests lost since 1980 to agriculture, development, and aquaculture shrimp farms About 10% of world’s beaches eroding because of coastal development and rising sea level Ocean bottom habitats degraded by dredging and trawler fishing boats Over 25% of coral reefs severely damaged and 11% have been destroyed Fig. 6-37, p. 133

55 Freshwater Life Zones Standing water Flowing water Fig. 6-40, p. 135

56 Freshwater Biodiversity
Bluegill Bulrush White bass Brook trout White waterlily Water lettuce Bowfish Water hyacinth Largemouth black bass Bladderwort Black crappie White sturgeon Yellow perch Velvet cichlid Walleyed pike American smelt Eelgrass Longnose gar Common piranha Carp Channel catfish Egyptian white lotus African lungfish Rainbow darter Muskellunge Fig. 6-38, p. 134

57 © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
Freshwater Systems Ecological Services Economic Services • Climate moderation • Nutrient cycling • Waste treatment and dilution • Flood control • Groundwater recharge • Habitats for aquatic and terrestrial species • Genetic resources and biodiversity • Scientific information • Food • Drinking water • Irrigation water • Hydroelectricity • Transportation corridors • Recreation • Employment Natural Capital: Freshwater Systems © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Fig. 6-39, p. 135

58 Life Zones in Lakes Littoral zone Limnetic zone Profundal zone
Benthic zone

59 Nutrients in Lakes: Oligotrophic
Fig. 6-41a, p. 136

60 Nutrients in Lakes: Eutrophic
Fig. 6-41b, p. 136

61 Stream Systems Runoff Drainage basin Watershed Floodplain
Fig. 6-42, p. 136

62 Inland Wetlands Importance of Wetlands Types: Marshes Swamps
Prairie potholes Floodplains Bogs and fens Tundra Seasonal

63 Human Impacts on Freshwater Systems
Dams, diversions and canals Flood control levees and dikes Wetland destruction

64 Sustainability of Aquatic Life Zones
Pollution Natural renewal Ecology: “Everything is connected”


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