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Manifest Destiny: An Empire for Liberty– or Slavery? (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny: An Empire for Liberty– or Slavery? (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manifest Destiny: An Empire for Liberty– or Slavery? (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Chapter 13

2 Growth as the American Way Unprecedented growth: U.S. population and land quadrupled “Manifest Destiny” John L. O’Sullivan – Democratic Review 1845 “Young America” movement Permanent Indian frontier (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

3 Manifest Destiny and Slavery Compromise of 1820: supposedly settled a division between slavery and freedom in the Louisiana Purchase Ongoing issue of expansion of slavery into new territories (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

4 The Westering Impulse Horace Greeley: “Go west, young man” Depression of 1837 pushed many West in search of cheap land, better opportunities Richard Henry Dana –Two Years Before the Mast (1840) (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

5 The Hispanic Southwest Frontier of New Spain Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico Santa Fe Trail Californios (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

6 The Oregon and California Trails “Oregon fever” “Great American Desert” 1847, exodus of the Mormons to the basin of Great Salt Lake 1849, California Gold Rush Most migrated as families, although women often came reluctantly Separate spheres for men and women persist (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

7 The Mormon Migration Strong patriarchal rule Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints) –Joseph Smith –Nauvoo, Illinois and Smith’s murder –Brigham Young and the Mormon Trek –Great Salt Lake (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

8 The Republic of Texas Stephen F. Austin and American settlement –Protestants in a Catholic country –Slave owners in country banning slavery Tejanos American alliance against central Mexican government Republic of Texas 1836 Antonio López de Santa Anna –“Remember the Alamo!” Sam Houston and the Battle of San Jacinto (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

9 The Annexation Controversy Jackson and Van Buren oppose Texas annexation John Tyler breaks with Whigs once President Calhoun’s actions inflame Northern suspicions about Texas annexation Texas annexation main issue in election of 1844 –Whig Henry Clay against –Martin Van Buren against, cost him Democratic nomination –Democrats choose “dark horse” James K. Polk, pro- annexation and “54’ 40” or fight” James Birney and the Liberty Party (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

10 Acquisition of Texas and Oregon Tyler’s Joint Resolution annexes Texas Rio Grande vs. Nueces River as Texas border Mexico breaks off diplomatic relations with U.S. “Fifty-four forty or fight!” becomes 49 th parallel (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

11 The Mexican War President Polk provoked a war with Mexico in order to gain California and New Mexico “Mr. Polk’s War” U.S. forces won every battle, and the war (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

12 Military Campaigns of 1846 Zachary Taylor –Monterrey (1846) Stephen Watts Kearny Alexander Doniphan John C. Frémont –“Bear-Flag Revolt” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

13 Military Campaigns of 1847 America’s gamble with Santa Anna Winfield Scott –Combined army-navy force took coastal fort at Veracruz –Takes Mexico City in September (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

14 Antiwar Sentiment Whigs and many in Northeast considered it a “wicked and disgraceful war” Anti-slavery supporters saw it as an expansion of slavery (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

15 The Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot and the Wilmot Proviso –Votes along sectional not party lines Expansion of slavery could tear parties apart Northern Democrats upset at loss of 54’ 40” Walker Tariff unpopular in North Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) –Nicholas Trist (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

16 The Election of 1848 Wilmot Proviso and the Liberty Party Calhoun and “southern rights” The Democrats middle ground –Lewis Cass and “popular sovereignty” Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor “Conscience Whigs” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

17 Free Soil Party Convention of 1848 Van Buren “no more Slave States, and no more Slave Territories” Free-Soilers pressured both northern Democrats and Whigs to stand against slavery in the territories Taylor wins (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

18 The Gold Rush and California Statehood 1849: gold-seekers headed to California California boom towns –San Francisco –Sacramento Territory from Mexico must be organized Slavery question for California Taylor proposed to admit California and New Mexico immediately as states, rather than as territories first (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

19 The Compromise of 1850 Issues that needed to be addressed in 1850 National Fugitive Slave Law End to slave trade in Washington D.C. Texas vs. New Mexico: Rio Grande Texas west border Nashville Convention (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

20 The Senate Debates Clay proposes compromise Calhoun threatens secession Daniel Webster –“seventh of March” speech William H. Seward –“higher law” speech (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

21 Passage of the Compromise Clay yields to Stephen A. Douglas Millard Fillmore replaces Taylor Provisions –California a free state –New Mexico and Utah no restrictions on slavery –Texas-New Mexico border dispute settled in New Mexico’s favor –Abolition of slave trade in D.C. –Fugitive Slave Law (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

22 The Fugitive Slave Law As anti-slave sentiment in North grew, local authorities refused to cooperate with slave hunters Personal liberty laws Fugitive Slave Act (1850) –Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842) ‘Underground railroad” Federal government pays all cost of enforcement Accused slave has no rights Law skewed to favor slave owner (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

23 The Slave-Catchers Thomas Sims Christiana, Pennsylvania (1851) Sherman Booth Anthony Burns Margaret Garner Effect: makes Northerners to sympathetic to the abolition of slavery (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

24 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Experience in Cincinnati acquainted her with plight of escaped slaves Book is reaction against Fugitive Slave Law Central theme: breakup of slave families Shapes Northern perceptions of slavery for a generation

25 Filibustering Polk tries to buy Cuba Narciso López and filibusters try to take Cuba Franklin Pierce –“doughface” Quitman expedition Ostend Manifesto (1854) (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

26 The Gray-Eyed Man of Destiny William Walker Briefly wins control of Nicaragua in 1856 Several failed attempts to regain control Executed in Honduras in 1860 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

27 Conclusion : addition of 1,150,000 square miles to United States America’s “manifest destiny” Question of slavery’s expansion Missouri Compromise of 1820 Compromise of 1850 Threats of secession (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved


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