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Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition Chapter 18 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition Chapter 18 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition Chapter 18 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition Chapter 18

2 Key Concepts  Improving energy efficiency  Types and uses of solar energy  Types and uses of flowing water  Uses of wind energy  Types and uses of biomass  Use of geothermal energy  Use of hydrogen as a fuel  Decentralized power systems

3 The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency  Energy efficiency useful vs. loses to low quality heat Fig p. 381  Net energy efficiency Least Efficient  Incandescent lights  Internal combustion engine  Nuclear power plants  84% of all U.S. energy is wasted

4 Energy Efficiencies (Fig p. 381)

5 Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency  Cogeneration  Efficient electric motors  High-efficiency lighting  Increasing fuel economy  Alternative vehicles  Insulation  Plug leaks

6 Overview Hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, unlike petroleum. Hydrogen is used to move energy. The prospect of clean hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles creates a sustainable environment without compromising extreme personal mobility.

7 Overview Fuel cells convert hydrogen gas into electricity cleanly, making possible nonpolluting vehicles powered by electric drive motors. A chicken-and-egg problem exists: large numbers of fuel-cell vehicles require adequate fuel availability to support them, but the required infrastructure is hard to build unless there are significant numbers of fuel-cell vehicles on the roadways.

8 Despite steady improvements, today’s vehicles are only up to 25% efficient in converting the energy content of fuels into drive-wheel power. (expected to plateau around 30%) Hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle is nearly twice as efficient, so it will require just half the fuel energy. Of even more significance, fuel cells emit only water and heat as by-products. Finally, hydrogen gas can be extracted from various fuels and energy sources, such as natural gas, ethanol, water (via electrolysis using electricity) and, eventually, renewable energy systems.

9 Hybrid and Fuel Cell Cars  Hybrid electric-internal combustion engine  Fuel cells Fig p. 385

10 Octane 120 Octane lbs of CO 2 per gallon! This breaks bonds to make energy

11 0 lbs of CO 2 per gallon! This makes bonds to release energy! 2 H 2 1 O 2 2 H 2 O

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14 Using Solar Energy to Provide Heat  Passive solar heating  Active solar heating Fig p. 391

15 Using Solar Energy to Provide High- Temperature Heat and Electricity  Solar thermal systems  Photovoltaic (PV) cells Fig p. 394 Fig p. 395

16 Producing Energy from Biomass  Biomass and biofuels  Biomass plantations  Crop residues  Animal manure  Biogas  Ethanol  Methanol Fig p. 398

17 Producing Electricity from Moving Water  Large-scale hydropower  Small-scale hydropower  Pumped-storage hydropower  Tidal power plant  Wave power plant

18 Reviewing the Trade-offs of Hydropower Dams Fig p. 313

19 Large-scale Hydroelectric Power: Trade-offs Fig p. 396

20 Producing Electricity from Wind Fig p. 396Fig p. 397

21 Geothermal Energy  Geothermal heat pumps  Geothermal exchange  Dry and wet steam  Hot water  Molten rock (magma)  Hot dry-rock zones

22 The Hydrogen Revolution  Extracting hydrogen efficiently  Storing hydrogen  Fuel cells  Environmentally friendly hydrogen

23 The Hydrogen Revolution Fig p. 403

24 Entering the Age of Decentralized Micropower  Decentralized power systems  Micropower systems Fig p. 405

25 Solutions: A Sustainable Energy Strategy Fig p. 407

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