4 A Multilevel, Multisector Process Curriculum Planning:AMultilevel, Multisector Process
5 The five levels of curriculum planning: The stateThe districtThe schoolThe department or teamThe classroomEach level of planning is subject to the authority of the one above it. However, classroom planning is still considered the most important.
6 The sectors of curriculum planning: The worldThe nationThe regionThe concept of sectors differs from levels in that there is no hierarchy.
7 Levels and Sectors of Planning World Nation Region State School DistrictSchoolTeam/Grade/DepartmentClassroom
8 The sectors of planning: Where are decisions made?
9 Efforts at the various levels: Classroom – develop yearly plans, develop units of study, enrich the curriculum and remediate learning, establish goals and objectives, evaluate the curriculum and learning.Department / team – content, sequencing, adapting, establishing objectives, selecting resources, determining groupings, evaluating and coordinating. Curriculum leaders begin to emerge at this level.School – develops a vision of quality curriculum, develops programs of study, develops a learning-centered schedule, determines the nature and extent of curriculum integration, aligns the curriculum, monitors and assists in the implementation of the curriculum (support / evaluation / training).
10 Efforts at the various levels: District – Provides the “framework” for which the previous levels (classroom, department, school) must function. Goals and objectives of these subordinate levels must mesh with those established by the district. The district commonly:Develops and implements curriculum related policiesDevelops goals based on state goalsIdentifies curriculum requirements and time allocations for each level as well as developing curriculum guidesLeads in the selection of instructional materialsDevelops performance measuresEvaluates the curriculumProvides fiscal and other resourcesProvides training and support
11 Efforts at the various levels: State – accredits, evaluates & monitors programs, disburses state and federal through state moneys, and enforces standards for graduation, develops state-wide standards of philosophy, goals, and objectives. The state commonly:Develops a framework for goals, standards, and requirementsDevelops tests and other performance measuresProvides needed resources to local districtsEvaluates the frameworks
12 Efforts at the various levels: Regional, National, and International –Curriculum efforts in these sectors are likely to consist of sharing problems, exchanging practices, reporting research, and gathering information.
23 Pattern B3 (district level) Curriculum coordinating council Curriculum SuperintendentCurriculumcoordinatingcouncilCurriculumadvisorycouncilAssistantSuperintendentAreasuperintendentAreasuperintendentAreasuperintendentAreasuperintendentDirectorofinstructionDirectorofinstructionDirectorofinstructionDirectorofinstruction
24 Pattern B3 Director of Instruction Principal Curriculum council Sub- committeePattern B3(cont.)
25 Curriculum Planning: The Human Dimension Chapter 4Curriculum Planning:The Human Dimension
26 Objectives: Describe the roles of a) the principal b) the curriculum leaderc) the teachersd) the studentse) the parents and other citizens incurriculum developmentDescribe the knowledge and skills needed by the curriculum leader.
27 The Cast of Players Role of the Administrator: May serve actively or passively as curriculum leaderCurriculum development is doomed to failure without his or her supportSuccess may depend on whether the principal is a “Theory X” or “Theory Y” person
28 Role of StudentsProvide input by indicating how they perceive a new proposal or programEvaluate teachers’ instructionDegree may depend on variables such as intelligence, motivation, and knowledge of subject matter
29 Role of Citizens in the Community Parents and others serve on advisory committeesParents serve as resource persons and volunteer as aidesLocal businesses have entered into partnerships with schools by providing expertise, funds, and materials to aide curriculum developmentState and national efforts have supplemented initiatives to involve the community in school affairs
30 Role of the TeachersTeachers constitute the majority or totality of the membership of curriculum committees and councilsTeachers review and initiate proposals, gather data, conduct research, make contact with parents, write and create curriculum materials, evaluate resources, obtain feedback from learners, and evaluate programs.Most teachers feel left out of the decision-making process
31 Role of the Curriculum Leader The curriculum leader may be a member of the faculty or an outsider. This is considered the “extended family”.The curriculum coordinator must be a specialist in the group process, possessing a unique set of skills.
32 Curriculum Leader and Group Process The Change ProcessInterpersonal RelationsLeadership SkillsCommunication Skills
33 The Change Process Four Variables: 1) Structure 2) Information and control methods3) People4) Task
34 Interpersonal Relations Individuals bring their motivations-their personal desires, feelings, or goals, commonly referred to as the “hidden agenda”Individuals in groups often behave differently then their individual behaviorsThe group itself assumes a personality all its own
35 Leadership Skills Other views: “Right place and right time” A politicianA climberA friend of a person in powerTraits of Leaders:IntelligentExperiencedAssertiveArticulateInnovativeDynamicCharismatic
36 Autocratic Democratic Two Approaches:AutocraticDemocratic
37 Difficulties with Oral Communication: Members of the group have a difficult time getting to the point.Use fuzzy, imprecise languageSelect out of discussion the things they want to hearFail to express themselvesFail to follow an orderly processDiscussion is stopped and group votes prematurelySessions breaks up without closureCommunication flow is from leader to memberHostility and disharmony exist within the group
38 Difficulties with Written Communication: The writer cannot realize his impactExcessive in numberEnglish is poor
39 Curriculum Development: Components of the ProcessChapter 5:Models for Curriculum Development
40 Part III: Components of the Process CHAPTER 5: Models for Curriculum Development
41 I. Selecting Models Types of Models: Deductive – proceed from general to specificInductive – from specific to general
42 I. Selecting Models Cont. Types of ModelsLinear – specific sequence of progressNon-linear – steps can be skipped, reversed etc.
43 I. Selecting Models Cont. Types of ModelsPrescriptive – what ought to be doneDescriptive – simply describes the process
44 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Identification of objectivesUse the learners, society and the subjects to identify the objectives
45 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Screening the ObjectivesPhilosophical Screen – which objectives emphasize the values of our democratic society?Psychological Screen – Which objectives are realistic in terms of time and difficulty?
46 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Identification of objectivesAfter the screening, we are left with“Precise Instructional Objectives”
47 Tyler’s curriculum rationale SourceSourceSourceStudentSocietySubjectTentative general objectivesScreenScreenPhilosophyofeducationPsychologyoflearningPrecise instructional objectives
48 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Expanded ModelAfter specifying objectives, Tyler speaks to the selection, organization, direction and evaluation of the learning experiences.
49 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Expanded ModelTyler states that teachers should give attention to learning experiences that will:Develop skill in thinkingBe helpful in acquiring informationBe helpful in developing social attitudesBe helpful in developing interests
51 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model Taba proposed an inductive, “grassroots” approach in which the curriculum planning begins at the teacher student level.
52 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model The Taba Model is a 5-step processProduce Pilot Units-An 8-step process for selecting and organizing content and activities
53 Producing pilot units Diagnosis of needs Formulation of objectives Selection ofcontentOrganization ofcontentProducing pilot unitsSelection oflearning experiencesOrganization oflearning activitiesCheck forbalance and sequenceEvaluation
54 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model Testing Experimental Units- teachers test pilot units for validity and “teachability”Revising and Consolidating- Modify for student needs and differences in teaching styles
55 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model Developing a Framework- examine units for adequacy of scope and sequenceInstalling and Disseminating New Units- administrators arrange training to make teachers effective in teaching the units
56 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model Model established 4 domains – goals and objectives created within the domains by curriculum planners – recognized the idea that prior political decisions can limit designPersonal DevelopmentSocial CompetenceContinued Learning SkillsSpecialization
57 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model Instructional ModesTeachers specify objectives and select appropriate strategies
58 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model EvaluationDetermine whetherSchool goals were metObjectives of instruction were met
59 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using Oliva Model A 12-step linear deductive modelRepresents a complete model covering:Needs (selection of curriculum)InstructionEvaluation
60 II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using Oliva Model Model can be used:To develop an entire curriculum for a school or a departmentTo focus on programs (1,5 and 12)To focus on instruction (6-11)
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