4A Multilevel, Multisector Process Curriculum Planning:AMultilevel, Multisector Process
5The five levels of curriculum planning: The stateThe districtThe schoolThe department or teamThe classroomEach level of planning is subject to the authority of the one above it. However, classroom planning is still considered the most important.
6The sectors of curriculum planning: The worldThe nationThe regionThe concept of sectors differs from levels in that there is no hierarchy.
7Levels and Sectors of Planning World Nation Region State School DistrictSchoolTeam/Grade/DepartmentClassroom
8The sectors of planning: Where are decisions made?
9Efforts at the various levels: Classroom – develop yearly plans, develop units of study, enrich the curriculum and remediate learning, establish goals and objectives, evaluate the curriculum and learning.Department / team – content, sequencing, adapting, establishing objectives, selecting resources, determining groupings, evaluating and coordinating. Curriculum leaders begin to emerge at this level.School – develops a vision of quality curriculum, develops programs of study, develops a learning-centered schedule, determines the nature and extent of curriculum integration, aligns the curriculum, monitors and assists in the implementation of the curriculum (support / evaluation / training).
10Efforts at the various levels: District – Provides the “framework” for which the previous levels (classroom, department, school) must function. Goals and objectives of these subordinate levels must mesh with those established by the district. The district commonly:Develops and implements curriculum related policiesDevelops goals based on state goalsIdentifies curriculum requirements and time allocations for each level as well as developing curriculum guidesLeads in the selection of instructional materialsDevelops performance measuresEvaluates the curriculumProvides fiscal and other resourcesProvides training and support
11Efforts at the various levels: State – accredits, evaluates & monitors programs, disburses state and federal through state moneys, and enforces standards for graduation, develops state-wide standards of philosophy, goals, and objectives. The state commonly:Develops a framework for goals, standards, and requirementsDevelops tests and other performance measuresProvides needed resources to local districtsEvaluates the frameworks
12Efforts at the various levels: Regional, National, and International –Curriculum efforts in these sectors are likely to consist of sharing problems, exchanging practices, reporting research, and gathering information.
14(interdisciplinary team at a middle school) PrincipalTeam Leader/English TeacherSocialStudiesTeacherMathTeacherScienceTeacherPattern II(interdisciplinary team at a middle school)
15(two teams at the same grade level) Pattern III(two teams at the same grade level)PrincipalGradecoordinator/Team ILeaderTeam ImemberTeam ImemberTeam IImemberTeam IImemberTeam IImember
16(traditional dept. style for a Pattern IV(traditional dept. style for asecondary school)PrincipalHead ofEnglishDepartmentEnglishteacherEnglishteacherEnglishteacherEnglishteacherEnglishteacher
17Pattern A1 (school level) Principal Faculty Curriculum council Sub- committeePattern A1(school level)
18Pattern A2 (school level) Principal Total Faculty Faculty Curriculum councilSub-committeePattern A2(school level)
19Pattern A3 (school level) Principal Total Faculty Community Advisory CouncilFacultyCurriculumcouncilStudentAdvisoryCommitteeSub-committeePattern A3(school level)
20Pattern A4 (school level) Principal Total Faculty Expanded curriculum committeeSub-committeePattern A4(school level)
21Pattern B1 (district level) Superintendent Principal Community advisorycouncilDistrictcurriculumcouncilSub-committeePattern B1(district level)
22Pattern B2 (district level) Superintendent Principal Expanded curriculumcouncilSub-committeePattern B2(district level)
23Pattern B3 (district level) Curriculum coordinating council Curriculum SuperintendentCurriculumcoordinatingcouncilCurriculumadvisorycouncilAssistantSuperintendentAreasuperintendentAreasuperintendentAreasuperintendentAreasuperintendentDirectorofinstructionDirectorofinstructionDirectorofinstructionDirectorofinstruction
24Pattern B3 Director of Instruction Principal Curriculum council Sub- committeePattern B3(cont.)
25Curriculum Planning: The Human Dimension Chapter 4Curriculum Planning:The Human Dimension
26Objectives: Describe the roles of a) the principal b) the curriculum leaderc) the teachersd) the studentse) the parents and other citizens incurriculum developmentDescribe the knowledge and skills needed by the curriculum leader.
27The Cast of Players Role of the Administrator: May serve actively or passively as curriculum leaderCurriculum development is doomed to failure without his or her supportSuccess may depend on whether the principal is a “Theory X” or “Theory Y” person
28Role of StudentsProvide input by indicating how they perceive a new proposal or programEvaluate teachers’ instructionDegree may depend on variables such as intelligence, motivation, and knowledge of subject matter
29Role of Citizens in the Community Parents and others serve on advisory committeesParents serve as resource persons and volunteer as aidesLocal businesses have entered into partnerships with schools by providing expertise, funds, and materials to aide curriculum developmentState and national efforts have supplemented initiatives to involve the community in school affairs
30Role of the TeachersTeachers constitute the majority or totality of the membership of curriculum committees and councilsTeachers review and initiate proposals, gather data, conduct research, make contact with parents, write and create curriculum materials, evaluate resources, obtain feedback from learners, and evaluate programs.Most teachers feel left out of the decision-making process
31Role of the Curriculum Leader The curriculum leader may be a member of the faculty or an outsider. This is considered the “extended family”.The curriculum coordinator must be a specialist in the group process, possessing a unique set of skills.
32Curriculum Leader and Group Process The Change ProcessInterpersonal RelationsLeadership SkillsCommunication Skills
33The Change Process Four Variables: 1) Structure 2) Information and control methods3) People4) Task
34Interpersonal Relations Individuals bring their motivations-their personal desires, feelings, or goals, commonly referred to as the “hidden agenda”Individuals in groups often behave differently then their individual behaviorsThe group itself assumes a personality all its own
35Leadership Skills Other views: “Right place and right time” A politicianA climberA friend of a person in powerTraits of Leaders:IntelligentExperiencedAssertiveArticulateInnovativeDynamicCharismatic
36Autocratic Democratic Two Approaches:AutocraticDemocratic
37Difficulties with Oral Communication: Members of the group have a difficult time getting to the point.Use fuzzy, imprecise languageSelect out of discussion the things they want to hearFail to express themselvesFail to follow an orderly processDiscussion is stopped and group votes prematurelySessions breaks up without closureCommunication flow is from leader to memberHostility and disharmony exist within the group
38Difficulties with Written Communication: The writer cannot realize his impactExcessive in numberEnglish is poor
39Curriculum Development: Components of the ProcessChapter 5:Models for Curriculum Development
40Part III: Components of the Process CHAPTER 5: Models for Curriculum Development
41I. Selecting Models Types of Models: Deductive – proceed from general to specificInductive – from specific to general
42I. Selecting Models Cont. Types of ModelsLinear – specific sequence of progressNon-linear – steps can be skipped, reversed etc.
43I. Selecting Models Cont. Types of ModelsPrescriptive – what ought to be doneDescriptive – simply describes the process
44II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Identification of objectivesUse the learners, society and the subjects to identify the objectives
45II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Screening the ObjectivesPhilosophical Screen – which objectives emphasize the values of our democratic society?Psychological Screen – Which objectives are realistic in terms of time and difficulty?
46II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Identification of objectivesAfter the screening, we are left with“Precise Instructional Objectives”
47Tyler’s curriculum rationale SourceSourceSourceStudentSocietySubjectTentative general objectivesScreenScreenPhilosophyofeducationPsychologyoflearningPrecise instructional objectives
48II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Expanded ModelAfter specifying objectives, Tyler speaks to the selection, organization, direction and evaluation of the learning experiences.
49II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Tyler Model Expanded ModelTyler states that teachers should give attention to learning experiences that will:Develop skill in thinkingBe helpful in acquiring informationBe helpful in developing social attitudesBe helpful in developing interests
51II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model Taba proposed an inductive, “grassroots” approach in which the curriculum planning begins at the teacher student level.
52II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model The Taba Model is a 5-step processProduce Pilot Units-An 8-step process for selecting and organizing content and activities
53Producing pilot units Diagnosis of needs Formulation of objectives Selection ofcontentOrganization ofcontentProducing pilot unitsSelection oflearning experiencesOrganization oflearning activitiesCheck forbalance and sequenceEvaluation
54II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model Testing Experimental Units- teachers test pilot units for validity and “teachability”Revising and Consolidating- Modify for student needs and differences in teaching styles
55II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Taba Model Developing a Framework- examine units for adequacy of scope and sequenceInstalling and Disseminating New Units- administrators arrange training to make teachers effective in teaching the units
56II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model Model established 4 domains – goals and objectives created within the domains by curriculum planners – recognized the idea that prior political decisions can limit designPersonal DevelopmentSocial CompetenceContinued Learning SkillsSpecialization
57II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model Instructional ModesTeachers specify objectives and select appropriate strategies
58II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using the Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model EvaluationDetermine whetherSchool goals were metObjectives of instruction were met
59II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using Oliva Model A 12-step linear deductive modelRepresents a complete model covering:Needs (selection of curriculum)InstructionEvaluation
60II. The Models of Curriculum Development Using Oliva Model Model can be used:To develop an entire curriculum for a school or a departmentTo focus on programs (1,5 and 12)To focus on instruction (6-11)