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Holt Call to Freedom Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and War 1840-1860.

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Presentation on theme: "Holt Call to Freedom Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and War 1840-1860."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Holt Call to Freedom Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and War

3 17.1 Manifest Destiny and Expansion Objectives:  Analyze how Americans’ belief in manifest destiny affected western expansion.  Explain how the United States acquired Oregon and Texas.  Discuss events that led to the Mexican War. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 2

4 I. The Roots of Manifest Destiny A. Manifest Destiny – the belief that nothing would stop the United States from expanding to the Pacific Ocean B. Term first used by New York newspaper editor John O’Sullivan © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 3

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6 C. Origins of Manifest Destiny 1. Found in Americans’ economic, political, and social experiences 2. Puritans believed that their society was a special promised land, which would serve as a religious example to the rest of the world. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 5

7 C. Origins of Manifest Destiny 3. During the American Revolution, Patriots believed that the United States would prove to the world that democracy could work in a large and growing country 4. Desire for farmland and new markets for goods also promoted expansion. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 6

8 II. Gone West A. By the 1840s many Americans accepted the idea of Manifest Destiny. B. Settlers moved into areas outside of the United States, such as California, Oregon and Texas. C. Ignored the fact that American Indians and Mexicans already lived in these areas © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 7

9 III. The Election of 1844 Source:

10 A. John Tyler 1. Made western expansion an election issue by supporting Texas annexation 2. Was vice president; became president when President Harrison died in 1841 © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 9

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12 B. Henry Clay 1. Selected over Tyler as the Whig presidential candidate 2. Initially opposed Texas annexation, but later supported it without enthusiasm © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 11

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14 C. James K. Polk 1. Democratic presidential candidate who wanted to acquire Texas and Oregon 2. Defeated Clay by a narrow margin © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 13

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16 III. The Election of 1844 D. Manifest Destiny played an important role in the election. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 15

17 IV. Acquiring New Territory © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 16

18 A. Oregon Country 1. Great Britain and the United States disagreed over the U.S.-Canada border in Oregon, and war seemed possible. 2. In 1846 the two nations signed a treaty giving the United States all Oregon land south of the 49 th parallel; drew border between Canada and the United States © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 17

19 B. Texas 1. The United States and Texas approved annexation, and Texas became the 28 th state in Annexation angered the Mexican government, however. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 18

20 V. War Breaks Out © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 19

21 A. Mexico’s Response 1. Cut diplomatic ties with United States, ordered U.S. Settlers out of California 2. Claimed the border between Texas and Mexico was the Nueces River, which was farther north than the Rio Grande, the border the United States claimed © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 20

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23 B. War 1. Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed border region. 2. Polk unsuccessfully tried to buy California and New Mexico from Mexico. 3. Congress declared war in 1846, after American and Mexican soldiers clashed. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 22

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25 17.2 The Mexican War Objectives:  Describe Americans’ reactions to the declaration of war against Mexico.  Examine the major events and battles of the war.  Explain the terms of the treaty that ended the Mexican War. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 24

26 I. Response to War © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 25

27 A. War with Mexico 1. Although outnumbered, the U.S. Army had better weapons and equipment than Mexican forces did. 2. Some 200,000 Americans volunteered to fight. 3. First U.S. war fought mainly on foreign soil © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 26

28 A. War with Mexico 4. First U.S. war covered by many newspapers, and one of the first wars to be photographed 5. War stirred patriotic fervor among many Americans. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 27

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30 B. Opposition to the War 1. Many Whig Party members thought the war was unjustified and unneeded. 2. Writer Henry David Thoreau was jailed for refusing to pay taxes, which he believed would support a war that he considered unjust. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 29

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32 B. Opposition to the War 3. Northern abolitionists opposed the war because they feared southerners would try to establish slavery in any new territories acquired as a result of the war. 4. Some pro-slavery southerners, such as John C. Calhoun, also opposed the war because they worried that new territories might ban slavery. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 31

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34 II. American Victories A. After winning battles north of the Rio Grande, Zachary Taylor led his troops across the river and occupied the town of Matamoros. B. Brigadier General Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe and headed for California. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 33

35 Source: Taylor (blue line) Kearny (red line)

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37 C. California 1. American settlers led the Bear Flag Revolt against California. 2. U.S. Army explorer John C. Frémont encouraged Americans to join the revolt. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 36

38 Source: The State Flag of California The 1846 First Bear Flag served as the model for our current state flag which was adopted as the State Flag in The First Bear Flag 1846 The flag flew over the town of Sonoma from June 14 until it was replaced on July 9, 1846 by the Stars and Stripes.

39 C. California 3. Meanwhile, U.S. naval forces and Kearny’s troops captured several towns. 4. Americans claimed control of California in August © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 38

40 III. The War’s End A. Taylor’s forces defeated General Santa Anna’s army at Buena Vista in Mexico. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 39 General Santa Anna

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42 B. Politics 1. President Polk, a Democrat, feared that General Taylor, a Whig, was becoming too popular and might run for the presidency. 2. As a result of this and other reasons, Polk replaced Taylor with Winfield Scott. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 41

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44 C. Final Battles 1. Scott’s forces captured the key port city of Veracruz, Mexico. 2. After a major battle, American troops took Mexico City in September © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 43

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46 IV. More New Territories A. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in February 1848, marked the peace. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 45

47 B. Terms 1. United States received the Mexican Cession, land that included the present-day states of California, Nevada, and Utah; most of Arizona and New Mexico; and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. 2. The Rio Grande was established as the U.S.-Mexico border in Texas. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 46

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49 B. Terms 3. The United States paid Mexico $15 million and assumed claims of more than $3 million held by American citizens against Mexico. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 48

50 IV. More New Territories C. In 1853 the United States negotiated the Gadsden Purchase, paying Mexico $10 million for the southern parts of what are now Arizona and New Mexico. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 49

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52 17.3 More Settlers Head West Objectives:  Analyze the conflicts caused by new U.S. settlement in the Southwest.  Discuss the interaction between various cultures in the Southwest.  Explain why the Mormons moved to the West and what they achieved there. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 51

53 I. Conflicts over Land A. American settlers, traders, and speculators flooded into the Mexican Cession. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 52 Source:

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55 B. Treatment of Mexicans in the Southwest 1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo protected property rights of residents in the Mexican Cession. 2. U.S. government often made Mexican American landowners defend their property rights in court, which bankrupted many of the landowners. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 54

56 B. Treatment of Mexicans in the Southwest 3. New settlers often ignored Mexican legal traditions, such as community property and community water rights. 4. To protect their property, some Tejanos married into powerful Anglo families. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 55

57 C. Treatment of American Indians in the Southwest 1. New white settlers often took control of water resources and grazing lands. 2. Settlers rarely showed respect for Indian burial grounds and holy places. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 56

58 C. Treatment of American Indians in the Southwest 3. American Indian raiding parties sometimes attacked settlements. 4. Settlers fought back, sometimes attacking Indian groups or villages not involved in the raids, which led to new conflicts. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 57

59 II. Cultural Encounters A. American Indian, Mexican, and Anglo cultures came together and influenced one another in the Southwest. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 58

60 B. Mexican and American Indian Influences 1. The Spanish language was important in trade and daily life. 2. Many place-names reflected the Mexican and American Indian heritage. 3. American and European settlers adopted some Mexican holidays. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 59

61 B. Mexican and American Indian Influences 4. Mexican Americans taught Americans mining and ranching techniques. 5. The Spanish adopted from the Pueblo the use of adobe as a building material. 6. New settlers adopted Mexican and American Indian foods, such as tamales. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 60

62 C. Trade 1. Brought people from different communities and cultures together and altered the economy of the Southwest. 2. The Navajo became known as skilled silversmiths, a craft they had learned from Mexican American settlers. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 61

63 C. Trade 3. Americans brought manufactured goods, such as firearms, and new breeds of animals to the Southwest. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 62

64 III. The Mormons A. In 1830 Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints, whose members became known as Mormons. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 63

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66 B. Persecution 1. Were persecuted for some of their beliefs and practices, such as polygamy 2. To escape, moved from New York to Ohio, then to Missouri, and then to Illinois 3. An anti-Mormon mob murdered Smith in Illinois in © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 65

67 B. Persecution 4. Brigham Young became the head of the church after Smith’s death. 5. Young chose Utah, then Mexican territory, as the new home for the Mormons. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 66

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69 C. Moving West 1. Mormons followed a route that became known as the Mormon Trail. 2. Founded Salt Lake City, which became the main Mormon community © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 68

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71 17.4 The Gold Rush Objectives:  Discuss why many people headed west to California in  Describe what life was like in gold rush mining camps and towns.  Analyze how the gold rush changed California. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 70

72 I. The Forty-Niners © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 71

73 A. Gold 1. Gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in January President Polk confirmed the discovery in a speech that December. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 72

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75 B. The California Gold Rush 1. Caused a huge increase in the population of California 2. Began in 1849 and drew some 80,000 gold-seekers, known as forty-niners 3. Nearly 80 percent of the forty-niners were U.S. citizens. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 74

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77 C. Getting to California 1. Easterners and Europeans usually took sea routes. 2. One route went around the Cape of Good Hope and took six to nine months. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 76

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79 C. Getting to California 3. Another route combined sea travel with a land trip across Central America. 4. Americans from the Midwest usually took wagon trains to California. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 78

80 D. San Francisco 1. Became a stopping point and trade center for forty-niners and other travelers 2. Grew from 800 residents in 1848 to 25,000 in 1850 © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 79

81 II. Gold Fever © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 80

82 A. Mining 1. Forty-niners would prospect, or search for gold, along streams or in shallow mines 2. Disagreements over mining rights could lead to violent confrontations. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 81

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84 II. Gold Fever B. California’s yearly gold production peaked at more than $60 million in © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 83

85 III. Mining Camps and Towns © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 84

86 A. Mining Towns 1. Often lacked law enforcement 2. Could be violent and dangerous places © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 85

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88 B. Women 1. Only about five percent of gold rush immigrants were women and children. 2. Some married women made the journey to California with their husbands. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 87

89 Source: 25 Families are supplied by this hydrant.

90 C. Making Money 1. Many people made money by selling goods and services to miners. 2. Some women made money by doing laundry and cooking meals. 3. Severe inflation led to prices such as $1 for a single egg. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 89

91 D. Biddy Mason 1. Biddy Mason and her family arrived in California as slaves. 2. They gained their liberty, and Mason worked as a nurse and did domestic work. 3. Mason invested in land and became one of California’s wealthiest landowners. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 90

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93 IV. Immigrants to California © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 92

94 A. Chinese immigrants 1. Came to escape famine and economic hardships in southeastern China 2. Suffered discrimination and violence in California 3. Worked in the mines, and many also opened their own businesses © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 93

95 IV. Immigrants to California B. Immigrants also arrived from Europe, Mexico, and South America. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 94

96 V. Growth in the West A. The California Gold Rush led to a population boom. B. As the gold rush faded, California society became more stable. © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 95

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98 V. Growth in the West C. Many new arrivals treated Californios and American Indians badly. D. California had the population necessary to apply for statehood in © Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide 97


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