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Air and Air Pollution G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 17 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Air and Air Pollution G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 17 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air and Air Pollution G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 17 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 17 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

2 Key Concepts  Structure and composition of the atmosphere  Types and sources of outdoor air pollution  Types, formation, and effects of smog  Sources and effects of acid deposition  Effects of air pollution  Prevention and control of air pollution

3 The Atmosphere  Troposphere  Stratosphere  78% N, 21% O  Ozone layer  Greenhouse effect Fig p. 419

4 Outdoor Air Pollution  Primary pollutants  Secondary pollutants - Often more dangerous than primary  Secondary pollutants - Often more dangerous than primary See Table 17-1 p. 420 See Table 17-2 p. 422 Fig p. 421

5 Photochemical Smog  Brown-air smog- from the combustion of fossil fuels and industry,  Health: 65K-200K deaths From outdoor pollutants/year  Brown-air smog- from the combustion of fossil fuels and industry,  Health: 65K-200K deaths From outdoor pollutants/year  Photochemical reaction  Photochemical oxidants  Damage crops, trees, Respiratory tract  Photochemical oxidants  Damage crops, trees, Respiratory tract Fig p. 424

6 Industrial Smog  Gray-air smog - Carbon and sulfur from combusted coal in Air react with oxygen, gray from soot  Gray-air smog - Carbon and sulfur from combusted coal in Air react with oxygen, gray from soot  Industrial smog - Problem in developing countries w/ limited Controls and high coal use.  Industrial smog - Problem in developing countries w/ limited Controls and high coal use.  Sulfuric acid -  Sulfur dioxide - Colorless, suffocating gas, also from smelting Metal ores  Sulfur dioxide - Colorless, suffocating gas, also from smelting Metal ores  Particulates Fig p. 426

7 Temperature Inversions  Subsidence inversion -mass of warm air into high altitude Floats over colder air on ground. Keeps air over ground stagnant-no mixing, doesn’t last long  Subsidence inversion -mass of warm air into high altitude Floats over colder air on ground. Keeps air over ground stagnant-no mixing, doesn’t last long  Radiation inversion -occurs at night as ground air cools faster, Air mixes around lunchtime when air warms  Radiation inversion -occurs at night as ground air cools faster, Air mixes around lunchtime when air warms Fig p. 427

8 Regional Outdoor Air Pollution from Acid Deposition  Acid deposition  Wet deposition  Dry deposition Fig p. 428

9 Acid Deposition in the US Fig p. 429

10 Acid Deposition and Humans  Respiratory diseases  Toxic metal leaching  Decreased visibility  Damage to structures, especially containing limestone  Decreased productivity and profitability of fisheries, forests, and farms

11 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems  Fish declines  Undesirable species  Aluminum toxicity  Acid shock  Indian Ocean  Acid shock  Indian Ocean Fig p. 431

12 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil  Nutrient leaching  Heavy metal release  Weakens trees Fig p. 432

13 Indoor Air Pollution/Sick Building Syndrome Fig p. 434

14 Radon  Radon-222  Decays into radioactive particles  Occurs in certain areas based on geology  Associated with uranium and organic material in rock Fig p. 436

15 Effects of Air Pollution on Living Organisms and Materials  Damage to mucous membranes  Respiratory diseases (see Fig p. 438)  Damage to plant leaves and roots  Reduction in primary productivity  Deterioration of materials (See Table 17-3 p. 440)

16 Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Air Pollution  Clean Air Act  Montreal Protocol -substances that deplete ozone 1987  Clean Air Act  Montreal Protocol -substances that deplete ozone 1987  National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) -6 principle pollutants- CO, Pb, NO2, PM, O3, SO2  Primary and secondary standards  Primary –human health, secondary –environmental health and damage  Primary and secondary standards  Primary –human health, secondary –environmental health and damage  Output control vs. input control

17 Emission Reduction Fig p. 441 Fig a p. 442

18 Reducing Indoor Air Pollution Fig p. 443

19 PreventionCleanup Reduce air pollution by improving energy efficiency Reduce coal use Increase natural gas use Increase use of renewable resources Burn low-sulfur coal Remove SO 2 particulates, and NO x from smokestack gases Remove No x from motor vehicular exhaust Tax emissions of SO 2 Add lime to neutralize acidified lakes Add phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidified lakes Figure Page 433

20 PreventionCleanup Reduce air pollution by improving energy efficiency Reduce coal use Increase natural gas use Increase use of renewable resources Burn low-sulfur coal Remove SO 2 particulates, and NO x from smokestack gases Remove No x from motor vehicular exhaust Tax emissions of SO 2 Add lime to neutralize acidified lakes Add phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidified lakes


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