Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy"— Presentation transcript:
1Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy Chapter 17- APUSHManifest Destiny and Its Legacy
2“Manifest Destiny”First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given usfor the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
6Gone to Texas - Why. - Land(Real estate deal- original 300) Gone to Texas - Why? - Land(Real estate deal- original 300) - Mexicans asked for settlers (Tejanos) - Needed to become Catholic
7Known as "The Father of Texas," Stephen F Known as "The Father of Texas," Stephen F. Austin established the first Anglo-American colony in the Tejas province of Mexico and saw it grow into an independent republic.His father, Moses Austin, received approval to settle 300 American families on 200,000 acres; he died before he could accomplish this, but his son, Stephen, did it for him.Stephen F. Austin( )
8Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836 Sam Houston ( )Stephen Austin ( )
9Sam Houstontook control of the Texas forces after the fall of the Alamo and Goliad, and conducted the retreat of the army to the site of the Battle of San JacintoApril 21, 1836, defeated Santa Anna and secured Texas long-sought independence.elected the first President of the Republic of TexasAfter statehood in 1845, Houston was elected Senator from Texas to the Congress of the United States.Still later, in 1859, Houston was elected to serve as Governor of the State of TexasSanta Anna’s wooden leg, with boot attached for “dress” occasions
10Davy CrockettWith his death at the Alamo, a willing sacrifice to Texas’ freedom, Crockett became a mythic figureCrockett is the quintessential frontiersman, the inspiration for the American image of the “hunter-hero,” a symbol of the “Age of Common Man,” a martyr for the cause of America's Manifest Destiny and a celebrity of popular culture"You may all go to hell, and I will go to Texas." --David Crockett to former constituents, 1835
16General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo The Battle of the AlamoGeneral Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
17Meanwhile…..-Despite the win, the 13-day holdout stalled the Mexican Army's progressand allowed Sam Houston to gather troops and supplies for his latersuccess at the Battle of San Jacinto.-The Texan revolutionaries went on to win the war for their independence.
20“His Accidency”Harrison's death left Tyler, the federal government, and the American nation briefly confused on the process of succession. It was not until 1967, that Tyler's action of assuming full powers of the presidency was legally codified in the Twenty-fifth Amendment.
21“His Accidency”Tyler and his cabinet- He quickly found himself at odds with his former political supporters. Harrison had been expected to adhere closely to Whig Party policies and work closely with Whig leaders, particularly Henry Clay.Tyler shocked Congressional Whigs by vetoing virtually the entire Whig agenda, twice vetoing Clay's legislation for a national banking act following the Panic of 1837 and leaving the government deadlocked.Tyler was officially expelled from the Whig Party in 1841, a few months after taking office, and became known as "the man without a party." The entire cabinet he had inherited from Harrison resigned in September, aside from Daniel Webster, Secretary of State
22“His Accidency”The Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Canada, then a colony of Britain.It also established the details of the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris (1783)reaffirmed the location of the border (at the 49th parallel) in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains ( originally defined in the Treaty of 1818)called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, to be enforced by both signatoriesagreed on terms for shared use of the Great Lakes.
24“His Accidency” Annexation of Texas Tyler advocated annexation of Texas to the Union.Whigs opposed this expansion because it would upset the balance between North and South and risked war with Mexico.However the Whigs lost the 1844 election to James K. Polk, who favored annexation.When the Senate blocked a treaty (which needed a 2/3 vote), Tyler pushed Congress to annex Texas through an adopted joint resolution.On March 3, Tyler sent instructions to his representative in Texas, Andrew Jackson Donelson, to announce the annexation. The next day, he left office
29The Oregon Controversy British claims through fur trade, occupation, and treaties with the U.S.American claims through exploration and settlers in the Willamette River ValleyJoint occupation agreed to in Treaty of 1818By 1846, nearly 5,000 Americans had caught “Oregon Fever” and moved into the region south of the Columbia River
35Goals of Polk’s Administration Lower the tariff.Resolve the Oregon boundary dispute.Restore the independent treasury.Acquire California.
36Goals of Polk’s Administration 1. Lower the tariffWalker Tariff of 1846 lowers the rate from 32% to 25%- excellent revenue producer because of increase imports and a revived economy after the Panic of 18373. Restore the independent treasury- done in 1846 despite opposition from pro-Bank Whigs
37Goals of Polk’s Administration 2. Resolve the Oregon boundary disputeProposes compromise line of 49th Parallel and gets shot downThe British began to feel the Columbia River was not the “St. Lawrence” of the West, and proposed the 49th Parallel line themselves in early The Senate approved the offer.
38MEXICAN - AMERICAN WAR: Causes Election of 1844James K. PolkAnnexation of Texas, 1845$3 million in claims for damages against the Mexican government by U.S. citizensTexas boundary disputeNueces RiverRio Grande RiverRumor that the British were trying to buy California
39The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border.US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt.Slidell authorized to offer a maximum of $25 million for California, and what is now Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and New MexicopojerJohn Slidell
40The Beginning of the Mexican War Polk orders Zachary Taylor’s forces to march from the Nueces to the Rio Grande in January 1846.When no fighting occurred, Polk informs his cabinet on May 9 that he will ask Congress to declare war based on unpaid claims and Slidell’s rejectionThat night, word arrives that two weeks before this, Mexican troops had attacked Taylor’s men, killing or wounding 16.
41War Fever in AmericaWere Americans responsible for starting the war? At best, we provoked a Mexican response.Abraham Lincoln, a Whig Congressman from Illinois, introduced the “Spot Resolutions” demanding to know where on American soil that American blood had been spilledEven the anti-slavery Whigs were forced to join in the war fever sweeping America
42The Battles of the Mexican War Americans let Santa Anna back into Mexico believing he would sell out his country; instead he leads a desperate defense of Mexican soilCaptain John C. Fremont leads the Bear Flag Revolt, and overthrows Mexican rule in northern CaliforniaZachary Taylor fights across the Rio Grande and at Buena Vista repels Santa Anna’s force of 20,000 with only 5,000 men. “Hero of Buena Vista”
43The Battles of the Mexican War General Winfield Scott lands at Vera Cruz in early 1847 and fights all the way to Mexico City in one of the most successful campaigns in American history
44The Mexican-American War Divine America Past & Present
45Results of the War: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 Territory to U.S.Texas boundaryU.S. paid Mexico $15 Million plus claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico (~$3.5M)
46The Mexican CessionHenretta, America’s History 5e from
47Results of the Mexican War Cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease).U.S. added over 1 million square miles of landPresent-day TX, NM, AZ, CA, NV, UT, +)The new territories brought into the Union forced the ex-plosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics.These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South.Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.“Manifest Destiny” ?
48Rep. David Wilmot (D-PA) Wilmot Proviso, 1846Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.PojerRep. David Wilmot (D-PA)Proposed shortly after war broke out in 1846
49Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century Divine America Past & Present