Presentation on theme: "POWER-HOLDER LEGITIMACY: THEORY AND EVIDENCE Justice Tankebe 4 th International Conference on Evidence Based Policing."— Presentation transcript:
POWER-HOLDER LEGITIMACY: THEORY AND EVIDENCE Justice Tankebe 4 th International Conference on Evidence Based Policing (Cambridge, 5 July 2011)
Outline Conceptual Groundwork Correlates of Power-holder Legitimacy Concluding Thoughts
The Return of a ‘Grand’ Concept Trust Confidence Legitimacy
To condemn something as illegitimate is, I think, implicitly to threaten defiance. Calling a decision illegitimate adds the suggestion that the decision is mistaken, or lawless, or immoral, in a way or to a degree that raises a question about whether it should not be obeyed’ (Strauss 2005: 1854)
Police Legitimacy and Public Behaviour It encourages cooperation with the police (Sunshine & Tyler 2003). It facilitates acceptance of police decisions, and general compliance with the law (Tyler 1990). It generates a willingness to empower the police (Sunshine and Tyler 2003). Reduces reoffending, and support for vigilante violence (Paternoster et al 1997; Tankebe 2009).
Tyler’s Model of ‘Process-Based Regulation’ Procedural elements quality of decision making quality of treatment Process-based judgments procedural justice motive-based trust Immediate decision acceptance Long-term decision acceptance Supportive values (legitimacy) General cooperation compliance cooperation empowerment Source: Tyler (2003: 283.
Herbert’s ‘Conflicting Pathways to Police Legitimacy’ Subservience – Democratic Separation –Liberal order (human rights) –Professionalism Protection from citizen meddling Need for unquestioned authority Quest for prestige Generativity –Police understandings shaping situations –Deployment of moralistic frameworks (self-identity as ‘moral guardians’)
Power-holder Legitimacy The self-belief power-holders (e.g. police officers) have in their moral right to govern (Bottoms & Tankebe 2008) People with power ‘must persuade themselves that their fates are deserved and therefore [morally] rightful (Kronman 1983).
Rulers need to believe that the power they possess is morally justified, that they are servants of a larger collective goal or system of values surpassing mere determination to perpetuate themselves in power, that their exercise of power is not inescapably at odds with hallowed standards of morality. (Dennis Wrong 1995: 103).
Police Legitimacy Defined Legitimacy is the recognition of the moral rightness of the police’s claim to exercise power. It consists in justifying simultaneously police power and citizens’ obligation towards obedience. Adapted from Coicaud, J-M (2002)
WHAT FACTORS SHAPE CONFIDENCE IN POWER- HOLDER LEGITIMACY?
Procedural Fairness Relational Social Capital (RSC) Performance Corruption Corruption reforms
Data & Method Sample of 181 officers in Accra (response rate = 82%) Education: secondary school (80.1%); tertiary education (19.9%) Length of service = 15 years (mean) Gender = 29.3% female
Findings Model 1Model 2Model 3 ß(s.e)ß ß Individual Variables Gender Education Length of service-.15* ** **-.07 Performance Effectiveness---.27**.07.12*.07 Corruption Corruption reforms Internal Cohesion Relational Social Capital---.13*.08 Procedural Fairness---.40***.07 Constant Adjusted R N = 181; *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001
Does Power-holder Legitimacy Matter? Responsible exercise of authority Stable and effective exercise of authority A precondition for ‘external legitimacy’ Organisational commitment; use of force?
The problem of the narcissistic power-holder
THANK YOU! QUESTIONS? Justice Tankebe 4 th International Conference on Evidence Base Policing (Cambridge, 5 July 2011)