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Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia Sharon Walpole University of Delaware Combining Comprehension and Fluency Instruction in Small Groups.

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Presentation on theme: "Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia Sharon Walpole University of Delaware Combining Comprehension and Fluency Instruction in Small Groups."— Presentation transcript:

1 Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia Sharon Walpole University of Delaware Combining Comprehension and Fluency Instruction in Small Groups

2 Today’s Goals  Review what research has revealed about effective fluency instruction, including recent findings  Review the basic approaches to fluency instruction  Consider ways to merge these basic approaches with comprehension instruction in small groups

3 Let’s start by reviewing what we know about fluency instruction.

4 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

5 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

6 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

7 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

8 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

9 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

10 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

11 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

12 Fluency Facts  Oral reading fluency has three components: accuracy, speed, and prosody. All three are related to comprehension (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005), but the relationship weakens in grade 3 (Paris, Carpenter, Paris, & Hamilton, 2005).  Oral reading fluency builds on word-level fluency (Walpole & McKenna, 2007).  During fluency work, children benefit from corrective feedback at the word level (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  Most of the effective instructional approaches are based on the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979).  Teacher modeling is very important – superior to modeling done by other children or by technology (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002).  It is generally more effective for a child to read to the teacher than to other children (Therrien, 2004).  For normally developing readers, second grade is key to fluency development (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).  Fluency growth is related to the volume of reading children do (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003).

13 This is what the research tells us, but what additional lessons have you learned about fluency instruction in your own experience? Take Five

14 Is fluency really necessary to comprehend? Yes and no. It’s hard for any reader to attend to two tasks at the same time. If word recognition requires lots of conscious attention, comprehension may suffer. Here is an analogy that might make this idea clear.

15 Attention to Word Recognition Attention to Comprehension The Comprehension / Fluency Seesaw When conscious attention to word recognition is high because the reader lacks automaticity, attention to comprehension may suffer.

16 Attention to Word Recognition Attention to Comprehension The Comprehension / Fluency Seesaw When conscious attention to word recognition is low because most words are recognized automatically, more attention can be devoted to comprehension.

17 Well, then what do you mean “yes and no”? Jay Samuels’ work suggests that some children develop a strategy for shifting their focus while reading.

18 Children who are determined to comprehend tend to go back and forth, first decoding a clause or sentence and then pausing to process the meaning. But this is a laborious process, and teachers should work to build fluency so that nearly all of the child’s attention can be devoted to comprehension. (Samuels, 2007, paraphrased) S. Jay Samuels “Father of Repeated Readings”

19 Round-Robin Oral Reading

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26  Round-robin oral reading may be used occasionally for assessment, but  it limits oral reading practice time because  the other children are unlikely to attend to specific words as they are spoken.  This means that look-say sight word reinforcement is limited for the other children.  Another problem is that the oral reading performed by struggling, dysfluent readers is not good modeling.  There are many effective alternatives to round-robin oral reading.

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28 Echo Reading

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32  Echo reading begins with a strong teacher model.  It maximizes practice time since children read simultaneously.  Children’s reading is fairly synchronous (That is, they read in near-perfect unison.)  Teachers should encourage children to finger-point as they read. Doing so encourages children to look at words as they say them. It also avoids the tendency of some children to over-rely on their short-term memory of what they have just heard the teacher say.  Echo reading may make it difficult for the teacher to monitor a specific child because of other children’s voices.

33 Whisper Reading

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35  Like echo reading, whisper reading maximizes practice time since children read simultaneously.  Like echo reading, whisper reading may make it difficult for the teacher to monitor a specific child. In fact, in whisper reading, children are discouraged from reading loudly enough to permit effective monitoring.  Like echo reading, whisper reading is usually done asynchronously. (This is inevitable since the children can scarcely hear one another.)  Sometimes “whisper phones” are used to encourage self-monitoring and softer voices (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005).

36 Choral Reading

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38  Teacher modeling accompanies student reading, so it provides less support to students.  Like echo reading, it maximizes practice time since children read simultaneously.  Like echo reading, choral reading may make it difficult for the teacher to monitor a specific child. In fact, it is even more difficult, since the teacher must attend to her or his own oral reading.  Like echo reading, choral reading is usually done synchronously. (That is, children try to follow the teacher closely.)

39 The result can be somewhat “church-like” !

40 Partner Reading

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42  Typically, pairs of children take turns reading aloud to each other.  Partner reading provides less practice time than echo or choral reading, but far more than round-robin oral reading.  The teacher can monitor by attending to individual children.  Partner reading is sometimes linked to repeated reading. The abler partner reads a sentence or more, and the less-able partner then reads the same segment. (This is actually a form of echo reading.)  Sometimes partner reading occurs during center time, which makes monitoring more difficult.

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44 Partner reading without direct teacher supervision

45  Round-Robin Oral Reading Echo Reading Whisper Reading Choral Reading Partner Reading Basic Approaches to Fluency Work with a partner to rank these approaches from least to most teacher support. (Do not include round-robin oral reading.) Take Two

46 Here’s Our Take! Most support Least support Echo reading The teacher reads a sentence and then the group rereads it aloud. Choral reading The teacher leads the entire group reading aloud in unison. Partner reading Pairs of readers alternate reading aloud by following a specific turn- taking procedure. Whisper reading Each child reads aloud (but not in unison) in a quiet voice. – Walpole & McKenna (2007, p. 73)

47 How does your core sequence fluency activities, day by day, for each week’s selection? Are there differences by grade level? To what extent is this plan working?

48 But can these approaches be linked to comprehension instruction? Yes, but you have to use selections with enough content to be challenging. Kay Stahl calls these “heavy texts.”

49 Heavy texts have well-developed plots with universal themes or new content area concepts and rich vocabulary. They tend to be relatively long, generally words, although informational texts may be shorter. Basal literature anthologies typically contain several heavy texts. Award-winning trade books, like the ones that are Caldecott or Coretta Scott King Award winners, are often must- read heavy texts. Kay Stahl

50 Examples of Heavy Texts (Kay Stahl, in press) Caldecottt Award Winners Coretta Scott King Award Winners Books by Aliki Books by Patricia Polacco Books by Chris Van Allsburg Barbour, K. (1990). Little Nino’s pizzeria. New York: Voyager Books. Dorros, A., & Kleven E. (1991). Abuela. New York: Dutton Children’s Books. Falconer, I. (2000). Olivia. New York: Simon & Schuster. Guback, G. (1994). Luka’s quilt. New York: Greenwillow Books. Hoffman, M., & Binch, C. (1991). Amazing grace. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers - Penguin. Howard, E. F., & Ransome, J. (1991). Aunt Flossie’s hats (and crabcakes later). New York: Clarion Books. Levinson, R., & Downing, J. (1993). Soon, Annala. London: Orchard Books. Mora, P., & Colon, R. (1997). Tomas and the library lady. New York: Random House. Siebert, D., & Minor, W. (1989). Heartland. New York: Harper Trophy. Swamp, J., & Printup, E. (1997). Giving thanks: A Native American good morning message. New York: Lee & Low Books.

51 Let’s examine two approaches that effectively combine fluency and comprehension instruction. The chief difference is in the amount of time children spend interacting with each book. Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) targets one grade-level book per week and the children explore it in some depth. The Wide Reading Approach emphasizes volume of reading and exposes children to three books per week. Both approaches have positive research results.

52 Comprehension and Fluency: FORI

53 FORI Day One  Preteach 2 or 3 key words  Discuss the book to build and activate prior knowledge.  Read aloud expressively as children follow in their copies.  Stop and question intermittently.  For information books, use a graphic organizer.  Conduct a postreading discussion, focusing on themes and summarizing.

54 FORI Day Two  Echo read the book, pausing after each sentence, paragraph, or page (depending on your students and the text).  Before moving to the next text segment, target and review key vocabulary.  Ask questions that focus on specific points of comprehension.  If possible, send the book home for children to echo-read with a parent or grandparent.

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57 The professor was taking a stroll with his family when their little dog found a bone. “Very old,” said the professor, examining the bone. “And very big. I’ve never seen one like it before.” He decided to stay a few days and explore.

58 FORI Day Three  Lead the children in a choral reading of the entire book.  Model expressive reading and stress to the children that how you read a sentence aloud should reflect its meaning.  Remind them that a listener will depend on the way they read aloud as well as the words themselves.

59 FORI Day Four  Students partner-read the book.  If appropriate, tie the reading to a comprehension strategy, such as student-generated questioning or summarizing. For example, after one partner reads a text segment, the other might ask a question.  For information books, students collaboratively summarize the most important ideas.

60 Long ago when the old west was new, Professor Potts and his family were traveling across the country. Before their train reached the Rocky Mountains, it stopped for water. The professor was taking a stroll with his family when their little dog found a bone. “Very old,” said the professor, examining the bone. “And very big. I’ve never seen one like it before.” He decided to stay a few days and explore.

61 The professor dug until he had collected a large pile of bones. And then, he took them back east to his laboratory. The professor studied all the books in his library, but none of them had bones like these. “Hmmm,” he said. “It may be some kind of giant lizard. To know for sure, I’ll have to put the bones together.” First, he tried the bones this way. No one would believe an animal like this and too many bones were left over. Then he tried the bones like this. The professor shuddered. “It gives me bad dreams,” he said. “Besides the front legs are too small.”

62 FORI Day Five Possible Extension Activities: 1.Conversation Groups. By now, all students have a good understanding and can benefit from sharing comments with their classmates. 2.Writing. This activity might be a brief response to the book or an extended composition that focuses on the writing process. It involves creative applications such as writing captions for illustrations. 3.Inquiry projects. Students can explore other books to follow a related topic and write about it.

63 What potential do you see for ideas from FORI to improve fluency practices in your program? What would you have to do as a coach to make them work?

64 Comprehension and Fluency: Wide Reading Approach

65 Wide Reading Day One Same as FORI:  Preteach 2 or 3 key words  Discuss the book to build and activate prior knowledge.  Read aloud expressively as children follow in their copies.  Stop and question intermittently.  For information books, use a graphic organizer.  Conduct a postreading discussion, focusing on themes and summarizing.

66 Wide Reading Day Two Same as FORI:  Echo read the book, pausing after each sentence, paragraph, or page (depending on your students and the text).  Before moving to the next text segment, target and review key vocabulary.  Ask questions that focus on specific points of comprehension.  If possible, send the book home for children to echo-read with a parent or grandparent.

67 Wide Reading Day Three Possible Extension Activities: 1.Conversation Groups. By now, all students have a good understanding and can benefit from sharing comments with their classmates. 2.Writing. This activity might be a brief response to the book or an extended composition that focuses on the writing process. It involves creative applications such as writing captions for illustrations. 3.Inquiry projects. Students can explore other books to follow a related topic and write about it.

68 Wide Reading Day Four  Introduce and echo-read a second book, pausing after each sentence, paragraph, or page (depending on your students and the text).  Before moving to the next text segment, target and review key vocabulary.  Ask questions that focus on specific points of comprehension.  If possible, send the book home for children to echo-read with a parent or grandparent.

69 Wide Reading Day Five  Introduce and echo-read a third book, pausing after each sentence, paragraph, or page (depending on your students and the text).  Before moving to the next text segment, target and review key vocabulary.  Ask questions that focus on specific points of comprehension.  If possible, send the book home for children to echo-read with a parent or grandparent.

70 FORI vs. Wide Reading Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5 FORI Build background Teacher Read-aloud Echo read Focus on comprehen- sion strategy Choral reading Partner reading Extension activities Wide Reading Build background Teacher Read-aloud Echo read Focus on comprehen- sion strategy Extension activities Introduce and echo read Book 2 Introduce and echo read Book 3

71 FORI vs. Wide Reading Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5 FORI Build background Teacher Read-aloud Echo read Focus on comprehen- sion strategy Choral reading Partner reading Extension activities Wide Reading Build background Teacher Read-aloud Echo read Focus on comprehen- sion strategy Extension activities Introduce and echo read Book 2 Introduce and echo read Book 3 More practice with the same book.

72 FORI vs. Wide Reading Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5 FORI Build background Teacher Read-aloud Echo read Focus on comprehen- sion strategy Choral reading Partner reading Extension activities Wide Reading Build background Teacher Read-aloud Echo read Focus on comprehen- sion strategy Extension activities Introduce and echo read Book 2 Introduce and echo read Book 3 More books – wider range of text and vocabulary

73 What potential do you see for ideas from Wide Reading to improve fluency practices in your program? What would you have to do as a coach to make them work?

74 FORI v. Wide Reading FORIWide Reading Planning Management Texts Students

75 References Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B. J. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58, Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, Opitz, M. F., Rasinski, T. V. (1998). Good-bye round robin: 25 effective oral reading strategies. New York: Reed Elsevier. Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32, Stahl, K. A. D. (in press). Using FORI and Wide Reading to create opportunities for comprehension instruction. In M. R. Kuhn & P. J. Schwanenflugel (Eds.), Fluency in the classroom: Two whole class approaches. New York: Guilford. Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2007). Differentiated reading instruction: Strategies for the primary grades. New York: Guilford.


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