Presentation on theme: "By: Haya M. Al-Malaq Clinical pharmacy department KSU"— Presentation transcript:
1By: Haya M. Al-Malaq Clinical pharmacy department KSU TBBy: Haya M. Al-MalaqClinical pharmacy departmentKSU
2IntroductionTB is the leading global infectious killer with 2.9 million deaths annualy.
3Characteristics of the organism M. tuberclusis is an acid fast bacillus b/c of its resistance to decolonization by acid alcohol after staining with basic function.It thrives in environments with high O2 tension. (e.g. epics of the lung)
5PathophysiologyThe inflammation produced with TB infection is granulomatous, with epithelioid macrophages and Langhans giant cells along with lymphocytes, plasma cells, maybe a few PMN's, fibroblasts with collagen, and characteristic caseous necrosis in the center.The inflammatory response is mediated by a type IV hypersensitivity reaction.
11Tuberculin PPD skin test Mantoux method Diagnostic tool used to detect infection with M.tuberculosis but not active TB.PPD refers to Purified Protein Derivative of M.tuberculosis, which is prepared from a culture of tubercle bacilli.The solution available:1 TU per0.1ml5 TU Per 0.1ml250 TU Per 0.1ml
14PPD skin test methodInjecting 0.1ml of 5TU PPD intradermaly into volar or dorsal surface of the forearm.If the patient previously infected with M.tuberculosis,sensitized T cells are recruited to the skin siteT cells cytokines induration(raised area)
15Tuberculin PPD skin test Induration is local vasodilatation, edema,fibrin deposition, and recruitment of other inflammatory cells to the area.The reaction to tuberculin begins 5-6hr.Max induration observed 48-72hr.The diameter of the induration should be measured in millimeters.
17Tuberculin PPD skin test Induration≥5mm consider to be a positive reaction:Recent history of close contactFibrotic changes on chest radiograph consistent with old TBOrgan transplant patientsImmunosuppressed patientsHIV positive persons
18Tuberculin PPD skin test Induration size of 10mm is used as the cut point for +vety in clinical condition that inc risk of TB:DMSilicosisCRFLeukemiaLymphomaGastrectomyWt loss of >10% of ideal body wt.
19Tuberculin PPD skin test Induration ≥10mm is considered to be +ve:Countries with high prevalence of TBDrugs usersEmployees of high-risk congregate settingsMycobacteriology laboratory personnelChildren <4 years of age
20Tuberculin PPD skin test False-positive tuberculin skin test:Infection secondary to other mycobacterial speciesBCG vaccineImpurities in the solutionsFalse-negative tuberculin skin test:Bacterial, viral,fungalVaccinationCRFDisease of lymphoid organAgeDrugs
21Tuberculin PPD skin test False-negative tuberculin skin test occur 25%Anergy decresed ability to respond to antigens due to sever debility, old age,immaturity in newborns,live vaccinations
22Tuberculin PPD skin test Positive PPD skin test DOSE NOT confirm diagnosis of active TB.Other test to confirm TB:Sputum culture(AFB)Gastric aspirationSpinal fluidUrineanalysisTissue biopsy
23AFB Limmitation of AFB: Negative AFB dose not rule out active TB AFB dose not has the ability to differentiate between mycobacterial species & viable-nonviable bacteria.
25CaseM.W 36 yo fCC: 2m history of cough recently became productive, she also is experiencing fatige, night sweats, wt loss 10Ib.Other medical problem DM (10u NPH daily, poor nutritional status 2ry to frequent dieting.She works as a volunteer in a nursing home several days a wk.
26CaseRecently it has been discovered that 2 pt that she has been caring for had active TB.PE: N, CXR reviled bibasilar infiltrates.PPD, AFB, CLT of sputum was ordered.Initial labs were WNL.PPD was 14mm ein 48hrs, sputum smear was +ve for AFB, MTB culture was ordered to confirm the diagnosis.
27Questions What S&O findings dose M.W have that r consistent with TB? What is PPD skin test? How should results be interperted in M.W?b/c M.W PPD skin test is +ve, does this confirm the diagnosis of active TB?
28Questions Should M.W be tested for HIV? Would a –ve PPD skin test eliminate the possibility of infection in M.W?
30Booster PhenomenonS.N 50 yo hospital employee receiving his initial PPD skin test (PPD-mantoux), & had a 7 mm induration.b/c of his age & previous hospital employment, it was decided to retest him 1 wk later to rule out “booster” effect.the results of the repeated test was 12 mm, he denied any exposure to a person with TB.
31What is the significance of this reaction? Should S.N be placed on INH therapy for latent TB infection?
32DefinitionSome people experience increase in size of a TB skin test not caused by TB infection.
33Possible Causes TB skin test it self if preformed every 1-2 yrs. Infection with other mycobacteria.Remote TB.Prior BCG vaccination.The incidence of the rx increase with age & may appear 1 wk after the previous test.
34How to know 2 step skin test is for new employee only. If the repeated test is +ve (>10 mm)--- booster phenomena.If change to +ve but <10 mm (6 mm inc) after 1 yr---recent converter.
36BCG VaccineC.T is a 25 yo F refugee from Combodia, was given a routine PE upon entering this country.As a part of this examination, she received a tuberculin skin test with 5TU PPD.The test results were +ve with 12mm induration.She denies receiving TB tx but remembered receiving BCG vaccine several yrs agp
37What is BCG vaccine?Does this +ve skin test indicate infection with MTB?
39Case E.F, 25 yo f, treated with: INH (15 mg/kg) Rifampin 600 mg twice a wk.For uncomplicated TB, thinks she is pregnant
40Risk / Teratogenicity Should therapeutic abortion be considered? What are the risks of TB & its treatment on the mother & fetus?Are these drugs teratogenic?
41Risk / Teratogenicity Untreated TB is greater risk than treatment. INH, Rif, Eth are teratogenic in animals not in humans.They are safe to use in normal dose in pregnancy.
42Risk / TeratogenicityPyrazinamide has been used safely but its teratogenic potential has not been studied adequately for FDA approval, it is only reserved for resistant cases.All pregnant women receiving INH should receive pyridoxine 25 mg/d b/c of the possibility of CNS toxicity.
43Risk / TeratogenicityThere is some risk of limb malformation & hypoprothrombinemia but not stat sig.Streptomycin should not be used (except as a last alternative) b/c of risk of ototoxicity.Therapeutic abortion is not recommended.INH, rif, eth safely used for 9 m.
44LactationE.F may breast-feed while taking her medn.
46PediatricsA.M is a 3 yo African American boy, is suspected of having TB.His father has been receiving tx for TB for the last 2 m.He has productive cough, fever, & general malaise.His sputum is +ve for AFB, & +ve PPD skin test (10 mm).
47Pediatrics What is the incidence of TB in children? How should A.M. be treated?
48Pediatrics Incidence dec 3/100000 in 1993 to 1.5/100000 in 2001. b/c of risk of disseminated TB pt should be tx asap (directly after diagnosis).The same regimen as for adults except for Eth (difficulty in assessing visual acuity).
49Pediatrics3 drug combination is recommended b/c of lo bacillary population & difficulty for an infant to take 4 drug.Regamin is INH (10-15mg/kg/d)+ Rif (10-20mg/kg/d)+ Pyrz (15-30mg/kg/d) for 8 wks then INH+Rif daily or 2-3t/wk for 4m (no resistance).
50PediatricsIf resistance is suspected add Eth (15-20mg/kg/d) until susceptibility is confirmed.Examine routinely for hepatitis, occurs within 3 months of therapy and more associated with hi dose & combination therapy.
51High-Priority Candidates for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment Should be recommended for the following persons with a positive tuberculin skin test, regardless of age:.Persons with known or suspected HIV infection.Close contacts with infectious TB.Recent tuberculin skin test converters.DM, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy, ESRD injection drug users, rapid weight loss.
52High-Priority Candidates for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment Should be recommended for the following persons with a positive tuberculin skin test who are < 35 years of age and do not have additional risk factors:.Foreign-born persons from high-prevalence countries.Medically underserved low-income populations.Resident of facilities for long term care.