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Mentoring and Diversity

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1 Mentoring and Diversity
J. Renee Navarro, Pharm D, MD Director of Academic Diversity Associate Dean Academic Affairs

2 Goals Provide information on the current initiatives to enhance diversity at UCSF Snapshot of current demographics Discuss challenges to achieving goals Suggest strategies to overcome challenges

3 UC Diversity Statement
Diversity – a defining feature of California’s past, present, and future – refers to the variety of personal experiences, values, and worldviews that arise from differences of culture and circumstance. Such differences include race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, language, abilities/disabilities, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and geographic region, and more. Adopted as policy by Regents September 20, 2007 For the first time we have a system-wide statement on diversity. It was initiated by The academic senate.

4 Diversity Initiatives
The Janitor Strike 1970 Climate for Women Faculty Survey 2003 President Dynes Task Force on Faculty Diversity UCSF SOM Task Force on Diversity President Dynes Health Science Diversity Review The Program in Medical Education for the Urban Underserved (PRIME- US) The mural titled, “SANARTE: Diversity’s Pathway,” is comprised of five different panels made out of tile and located next to the Ambulatory Care Center. The panels represent global healing traditions and highlight the unique efforts of individuals involved in furthering UCSF’s commitment to diversity. While not a diversity initiative per se, The Prime program has had remarkable success since it’s initiation 4 years ago. It serves as a catalyst for the SOM student engagement with our urban underserved community and has proved to be a significant recruitment tool. In it’s 4th year and despite the state’s lack of sufficient funding – the program has 11 students 73% are URM students and 82% are from SES Disadvantaged backgrounds.

5 Diversity Initiatives (cont.)
Chancellor’s Faculty Diversity 10 point Initiative 2/2007 Communications plan Faculty database for conducting searches Best practices for searches Staff recruitment and retention Trainee diversity Accountability and incentives Director of Academic Diversity Coordinated outreach School specific plans Strategic planning initiative UCSF has instituted a number of initiatives over the years to address campus issues. In 2002 Vice Chancellor Bainton initiated a climate survey. …the strategic planning process was completed as well…

6 Strategic Plan Mission Vision Advancing health worldwide TM
In advancing health worldwide, UCSF will: Develop innovative, collaborative approaches for education, health care and research that span disciplines within and across the health sciences Be a world leader in scientific discovery and its translation into improved health Develop the worlds future leaders in health care delivery, research, and education Deliver the highest quality, patient-centered care Build upon its commitment to diversity Provide a supportive work environment to recruit and retain the best people and position UCSF for the future Serve the local, regional and global communities and eliminate health disparities The strategic plan was complete in late With our mission on advancing health worldwide 7 defining statements reflect the vision. Among them is to build upon our commitment to diversity.

7 Chancellor Desmond-Hellmann
Top Five Priorities Patients/Health Discovery Education People (management and diversity) Business (efficiency and resources) So how are we doing?

8 How has this changed over the last three years.
Looking at 2007 compared to More female, more Asian Small drop in the total number of faculty 2009 vs

9 So what do we look like as a faculty?
As of December 2008 we had a total of 2326 faculty. Of that we have 6 native American, 49 AA, and 75 Hispanics ( a gain of 6 Hispanic faculty). It’s easy to understand that many faculty from underrepresented groups report feeling isolated and may experience difficulty identifying or connecting with mentors.

10 Faculty Demographics (by series)
Through our Academic Demographic Database we can look at our faculty by academic series or by school as well. Looking at our faculty by Academic series you can see the

11 School of Dentistry Dentistry has 171 faculty with 3 Black and 7 Hispanic members (a loss of 3 Hispanic fac members from 2009 data).

12 School of Medicine

13 SOM Minority Faculty vs. AAMC Benchmark

14 School of Nursing

15 School of Pharmacy

16 Challenges Proposition 209
Article 1, section 31 of the California Constitution prohibits the University from discriminating against or granting preferential treatment to any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin. Unconscious Bias - social stereotypes about certain demographics or Groups of people that individuals form outside their conscious awareness. Mentoring relationships across race differences can be difficult because of negative stereotypes, difficulty with identification and role modeling, skepticism about intimacy and protective hesitation. Thomas D. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities. Harvard Business Review, 2001 There are challenges that have been forced upon us as result of the vote of the first the regents with Ward Connerly and then in a ballot initiative that lead to a change in our state constitution. While Prop 209 eliminated some of the tools we could use to diversify our campus, there is still much that can be done.

17 Unconscious Bias The Implicit Association Test
IAT consistently demonstrates that people unconsciously prefer: White over Black Young over Old Thin over Fat Associate men with science and careers and women with liberal arts and family https://implicit.harvard.edu

18 a general commitment to diversity
2009 Literature Review compiling a decade of research on unconscious bias as a barrier to achieving workplace equality despite a general commitment to diversity The analysis focuses on articles related to career-related bias and the Implicit Association test. The Implicit association test has consistently demonstrated that people prefer white over black, young over old, thin over fat and males are linked with science and careers while females are linked to liberal arts and family. On an Individual Basis: Admit to the fact that we all have unconscious bias. Take the Implicit Association Test to uncover you own biases. Try to actively counter this by taking the perspective of members of a different group to counteract stereotype imaging. Think of an individual you admire from a different group to counter a negative gender or racial schema. Know the data.

19 Gender Bias Steinpres, Anders, & Ritzke (1999)
In rating the CVs of either early career or later career fac applicants academic psychologists evaluators received one of these CVs with either a male or female name and were asked: Would you hire the early career applicant? Would you grant tenure to the later career candidate? Results: CVs from male applicants were more likely to lead to hiring as reviewed by both males and females. Evaluators were 4X more likely to write comments of concern for the female tenure candidates. To test for sex-biased hiring in symphony orchestras. Blind auditions involved the use of screens to conceal candidates. The researchers compared two audition procedures: “blind auditions” vs. “not-blind” auditions Blind auditions increases the likelihood that a female will be hired by 25 percent. The switch to blind auditions in 1970 explains 30% of the increase in the proportion of females among new hires.

20 Race Bias Bertrand & Mullainathan 2003
Goal: To examine the effect of race on receiving job callbacks The researchers categorized the new resumes as high or low quality and assigned them an equal number of traditionally black names (e.g. Lakisa) or traditional white names (e.g. Greg). Results: Resumes with white names received call backs 10.8% vs. 6.7%. Higher quality resumes elicited 30% more call backs for whites and 9% for blacks. Employers who listed “Equal Opportunity” were no different. To examine the effect of race on receiving job callbacks the researchers responded with fictitious resumes to help-wanted ads. Boston and Chicago newspapers. The resumes were altered from actual ones found on job search Web sites.

21 Strategies That Reduce Bias
Examine the role of unconscious bias Take the Implicit Association Test Use structured interviews Remember that cultural differences can affect the first impression of candidates Allow sufficient time in the interview process (sex bias and potentially racial/ethnic bias emerge when we’re under time pressure) Proven effective in studies with randomized controlled designs and Level 1 evidence. A structured interview includes a standard set of questions that is asked of each candidate. For leadership positions: Division chiefs, residency directors, chairs – defined vision to include contributions of diversity. Review candidates based on the credentials before making summary judgments. This avoids reconstructing the merit to unwittingly favor one type of candidate over another. Bias emerge when evaluators are under time pressure. Avoid looking for excuses to exclude candidates Encourage others to know what the research shows Support accountability for decision makers

22 Minority Faculty Voices on Diversity in Academic Medicine: Perspectives From One School
Qualitative study of minority faculty to examine perceptions and experiences in academic medicine at UCSF. Themes Balancing Obligation and Expectation Impact of Subtle Discrimination Gap between Intention and Implementation A need for a multifaceted approach to mentoring Megan Mahoney, MD et al Academic Medicine, Vol. 83, No. 8 / August 2008 Mentorship: Significant needs and limited choices All participants viewed mentorship as a crucial element for achieving success in academic medicine, even though the topic of mentorship was not an explicit part of our interview guide. Receiving mentorship typically correlated with career satisfaction. In addition to career guidance, it was observed that minority mentors provide cultural and emotional support and a sense of belonging to a community. All mentors can help minority faculty members navigate the university structure and institutional conventions. Minority faculty describe structural barriers (poor retention efforts, lack of mentorship) that hinder their success and professional satisfaction.1 URM faculty are less satisfied with their careers and more often consider leaving academia.2 Price Palepu

23 We need to enhance the culture of inclusion
Conclusions Receiving mentorship is a crucial element for achieving success in academic medicine. In addition to general career guidance, mentors provide cultural/emotional support and a sense of belonging. The low number of minority faculty makes finding mentorship and meeting the demand for mentoring minority medical students difficult We need to enhance the culture of inclusion Academic Medicine, Vol. 83, No. 8 / August 2008 We need to enhance the culture of inclusion – provide networking opportunities for your mentees

24 Thank you

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