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Positive : presents a rational case for Christian truth claims. Natural theology Christian evidence Negative : Deals with objections to those.

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Presentation on theme: "Positive : presents a rational case for Christian truth claims. Natural theology Christian evidence Negative : Deals with objections to those."— Presentation transcript:

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6 Positive : presents a rational case for Christian truth claims. Natural theology Christian evidence Negative : Deals with objections to those claims. Objections to God’s existence Objections to Christianity in particular

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8 Arguments for the existence of God Cosmological [contingency and temporal] Teleological Moral Ontological

9 To get beyond mere theism we need to show that the god demonstrated by natural theology is in fact the Christian God. Fulfilled prophecy Jesus of Nazareth Jesus miracles and resurrection

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12 How do you know? The immediate experience of God The self authenticating witness of the Holy Spirit Not evidence and argument 9 You, however, are controlled not by the sinful nature but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you. And if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ. … 16 The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are God's children. Romans 8 20 But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and all of you know the truth…. 27 As for you, the anointing you received from him remains in you, and you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things and as that anointing is real, not counterfeit—just as it has taught you, remain in him. 1 John 2

13 How do you show? Evidence, reason and argument. Apologetics 1 Peter 3:13-16 Colossians 1: Corinthians 10:3-5

14 1 Peter 3:13-16 Colossians 1: Corinthians 10:3-5

15 13 Who is going to harm you if you are eager to do good? 14 But even if you should suffer for what is right, you are blessed. "Do not fear what they fear; do not be frightened." 15 But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect, 16 keeping a clear conscience, so that those who speak maliciously against your good behaviour in Christ may be ashamed of their slander. 1 Peter 3:13-16

16 13 Who is going to harm you if you are eager to do good? 14 But even if you should suffer for what is right, you are blessed. "Do not fear what they fear; do not be frightened." 15 But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect, 16 keeping a clear conscience, so that those who speak maliciously against your good behaviour in Christ may be ashamed of their slander. 1 Peter 3:13-16

17 6 So then, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live in him, 7 rooted and built up in him, strengthened in the faith as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. 8 See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ. 9 For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, 10 and you have been given fullness in Christ, who is the head over every power and authority. Colossians 1:6-10

18 6 So then, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live in him, 7 rooted and built up in him, strengthened in the faith as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. 8 See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ. 9 For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, 10 and you have been given fullness in Christ, who is the head over every power and authority. Colossians 1:6-10

19 3 For though we live in the world, we do not wage war as the world does. 4 The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds. 5 We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God, and we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ. 2 Corinthians 10:3-5

20 3 For though we live in the world, we do not wage war as the world does. 4 The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds. 5 We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God, and we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ. 2 Corinthians 10:3-5

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22 Rules of thought True premises Logically valid structure Premises must be more plausible than their negations

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24 1. All men are mortal 2. Socrates is a man 3. Therefore Socrates is mortal 1. All men are mortal 2. Socrates is a man 3. Therefore Socrates is mortal

25 1. If God exists, objective moral values exist 2. Objective moral values exist 3. Therefore God exists 1. If God does not exist, objective moral values do not exist. 2. Objective moral values exist 3. Therefore God exists 1. If God does not exist, objective moral values do not exist. 2. Objective moral values exist 3. Therefore God exists

26 1. If Jesus were not Lord, He would be a liar or a lunatic 2. Jesus was neither a liar nor a lunatic 3. Therefore, Jesus is Lord

27 Deductive If the logic is valid and the premises are true the conclusion is inevitable Inductive If the logic is valid and the premises are true the conclusion may be plausible or likely but not guaranteed

28 Inductive reasoning C C A A B B No treatment Cured 75% 45% 40%

29 Inductive reasoning Drug A is effective in improving the cure rate from the disease. The conclusion is likely true but not guaranteed. Confounding variable? Difference in patients Difference in conditions Chance?

30 Certainty and scepticism Plausibility is person dependant The most persuasive arguments will be based on premises which enjoy the widest support. Objections … Misinformation Ignorance Logical fallacy

31 Certainty and scepticism Plausibility is person dependant The most persuasive arguments will be based on premises which enjoy the widest support. Objections … Misinformation Ignorance Logical fallacy or Occasionally a premise will be denied when it is perfectly good because the inevitable conclusion is not popular.

32 Certainty and scepticism The Kalām Cosmological Argument Whatever begins to exist has a cause The universe began to exist Whatever begins to exist has a cause The universe began to exist

33 Certainty and scepticism

34 The Kalām Cosmological Argument Whatever begins to exist has a cause The universe began to exist Whatever begins to exist has a cause The universe began to exist

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36 Certainty and scepticism The Kalām Cosmological Argument Whatever begins to exist has a cause The universe began to exist Therefore the universe has a cause. Whatever begins to exist has a cause The universe began to exist Therefore the universe has a cause.

37 Worldview No God? No immortality? Man and the universe are inevitably doomed… Threat of non being Life is ultimately absurd. No meaning, value, purpose.

38 “New Atheists”

39 Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player, That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing. Shakespeare 1 The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. 2 Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. 3 There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard. Psalm 19

40 Atheism God does not exist. No such being or person. No good evidence that it is true The claim that God does not exist is just as much a claim to know something as the claim that God does exist Atheists must do more that just say that there is no good evidence for God’s existence

41 What atheists cannot explain … The origin of the universe out of nothing The design of the universe The source of the fine tuning in the universe The explanation of the numerous constants The laws of logic The laws of mathematics The laws of causality The origin of objective moral values The origin of human rights The origin and design of life The origin of intelligence The origin of love The origin of beauty

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43 Atheism/Christianity debate Reasonable Faith Stand to Reason All About God Bethinking

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