Presentation on theme: "Protestantism - one of the major branches of Christianity, apart from Catholicism and Orthodox that consists of religious denominations resulting from."— Presentation transcript:
Protestantism - one of the major branches of Christianity, apart from Catholicism and Orthodox that consists of religious denominations resulting from the Reformation movement within the Roman Catholic Church.
Lutheranism is based on the teachings of Martin Luther and has it adherents in the central, eastern and northern Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Iceland, including Finland, Latvia and Estonia, as well as northern and western regions of the Czech Republic and the south-eastern Austria. Science of John Calvin (Calvinism) seized most of the Switzerland’s area, the Netherlands and eastern Hungary and contributed to the formation of the doctrine of the English Puritans, Scotch Presbyterians and French Huguenots. The third stream of the Reformation, Anabaptism consists of baptized believers combining the principle of social radicalism. This led to the so-called Peasant Wars in Germany and the rise of the communist community in Munster, but the excesses of this movement led to its cease in Europe (Anabaptists, who accepted the principle of pacifism were called Mennonites; Amish – who were expelled from various countries eventually settled in the United States).
King Henry VIII shaped the process of English Reformation. He kept the Episcopal Church's constitution and many Catholic principles. Anglican Identity is based more on a common liturgy with moderation in the resolution of theological problems. Incompleteness of the English Reformation and its top-down nature meant that in England new communities were formed and deepened the Reformation. Those were Puritans, Baptists, Methodists, Quakers. Rulers of England got rid of dissidents eagerly from the Church of England, enabling their resettlement in the American colonies which led to a pluralistic and (necessarily) a tolerant nature of Protestantism in the United States. In Germany, a major impact on the Protestant movement had the attempt to unify Calvinists and Lutherans (Evangelical Union Churches).
The main feature of Protestant denominations is that they recognize Jesus Christ as the sole mediator between God and man, the tradition of acceptance and rejection of Catholicism as equal to Scripture foundation of faith, assuming that salvation is based on grace, accepted by faith and not by good works or religious practices. In addition, Protestants reject indulgences, the doctrine of purgatory, the worship of Saint Mary and the Saints, celibacy of priests, papal authority and the liturgy in Latin.