Presentation on theme: "Session One: Moving to the New World. Schedule Overview 1.Moving to the New World (1600 ~ 1700) 2.Lutheranism Takes Root (1700 ~ 1800) 3.Becoming “American”"— Presentation transcript:
Schedule Overview 1.Moving to the New World (1600 ~ 1700) 2.Lutheranism Takes Root (1700 ~ 1800) 3.Becoming “American” (1800 ~ 1900) 4.Remaining “Ethnic” (1800 ~ 1900) 5.Lutherans Unite (1900 – 1962) 6.Lutherans Divide (1962 – 1988) 7.The ELCA: A Brief History (1988 – Today)
Two Primary Questions What defines a Lutheran? Who is one?
Apostolic Lutheran Church of America Two Primary Questions One who belongs to a Lutheran church. But which one??? What defines a Lutheran? Who is one? American Association of Lutheran Churches Association of Free Lutheran Congregations Augsburg Lutheran Churches Church of the Lutheran Brethren Conservative Lutheran Association Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod Evangelical Lutheran Synod Laestadian Lutheran Church Lutheran Evangelical Protestant Church North American Lutheran Church Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Lutheran Churches in the U.S. In the United States today, there are 27 Lutheran denominations! Valparaiso University has a list of the denominations with links to their various websites. Go to http://www.valpo.edu/churchrelations/resource s for more info.
The “Lutheran Church” Answer Other problems with an “institutional” answer to this question: Were once baptized in a Lutheran church (and may still be included in their roster), but no longer attend any church Count themselves as members of a Lutheran church, but no congregation does
Two Primary Questions One who follows the teachings of Martin Luther. What defines a Lutheran? Who is one?
Two Primary Questions PROS He was articulate and passionate about his beliefs He brought theology and faith “down” to the people. It makes sense to follow the leader of a movement CONS His writings were often in response to specific circumstances His writings necessitate a good understanding of Renaissance-era Germany He wrote A LOT!!! (And often contradicted himself) PROS AND CONS OF MARTIN LUTHER’S TEACHINGS
Two Primary Questions Concerning Christian Liberty Disputation on the Divinity and Humanity of Christ The German Mass and Order of Divine Service An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility A Treatise on Good Works Ninety-five Theses Small Catechism Large Catechism The Smalcald Articles On the Bondage of the Will Heidelberg Disputation The Babylonian Captivity of the Church The Freedom of a Christian Commentary on Galatians Commentary on Romans On the Councils and the Church A Sermon on the Estate of Marriage And much, much more! Luther wrote hundreds of papers, hymns, sermons and treatises…
Luther’s Works All told, Luther wrote enough to fill over 50 volumes of writings. –Many of these weren’t available translated into English until the 20 th century (Available for purchase electronically through LOGOS Bible Software…cheaper, searchable, and much easier to carry around!)
Two Primary Questions But only THREE of them are included in the Book of Concord: The Small Catechism The Large Catechism The Smalcald Articles
Two Primary Questions Those who adhere to a set of Lutheran principles, especially those which are set forth in the Book of Concord. What defines a Lutheran? Who is one?
Two Primary Questions Three Ecumenical Creeds – Apostles’ – Nicene – Athanasian Augsburg Confession Apology to the Augsburg Confession The Smalcald Articles Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope The Small Catechism The Large Catechism The Formula of Concord –Epitome –Solid Declaration What is included in the Book of Concord?
Two Primary Questions The major question regarding the Book of Concord: How authoritative is it for Lutherans?
Two Primary Questions Authoritative BECAUSE it agrees with Scripture Authoritative INSOFAR AS it agrees with Scripture Remember this…it will be important later on!!!
Two Primary Questions What defines a Lutheran? Who is one? These will be crucial questions that shape Lutheranism in America.
Luther’s Legacy for the New World Luther contributed a great deal to American Lutheran theology
Luther’s Legacy Luther practiced and taught an experiential approach to theology – We don’t learn about God solely through classroom lectures and listening to sermons – God is experienced in a hands-on kind of way – Early development of PRAXIS
Luther’s Legacy Luther’s experiential approach to theology is captured best in two phrases: 1.“What does this mean?” 2.“…for YOU.”
Luther’s Legacy Luther also practiced and taught a realistic approach to theology 1. Humanity: Saint & Sinner 2. The World: Two Kingdoms 3. How God Speaks to Us: Law & Gospel
Luther’s Legacy Luther did NOT practice or teach an “anything goes” kind of theology, however – Sola Scriptura – Sola Gratia – Sola Fide – Captured well in the phrase “Here I stand. I can do no other.”
Moving to the New World When the first Lutherans set sail from the land of the Reformation to the New World, they brought this theology with them –How would these things have helped / hindered them as they began a new home here?
Moving to the New World 1.Worship – Changes were minimal, but profound Vernacular Sacraments & Preaching take central place – Focus on things that matter, and leave room for matters of indifference (Adiaphora) No uniform worship pattern: good & bad Still looks a lot like Roman Catholicism from the outside What else did Lutherans bring with them?
Moving to the New World 1.Commitment to Education & Lay Participation 1.Religious Knowledge / Piety 1.If the Bible is now the sole source of authority, people need to be able to read! 2.Vocation 1.If people are to serve God through their daily living, they need to know how to do it well! 3.Pastors 1.If churches are to be served by people who have a particular calling to be a pastor, they need to be trained appropriately! What else did Lutherans bring with them?
Moving to the New World Commitment to Education & Lay Participation – Religious Knowledge / Piety If the Bible is now the sole source of authority, people need to be able to read! – Vocation If people are to serve God through their daily living, they need to know how to do it well! – Pastors If churches are to be served by people who have a particular calling to be a pastor, they need to be trained appropriately! What else did Lutherans bring with them? Focus on these areas would lead to trouble down the road –Piety combines with a desire to preserve imported European cultures & languages (and interpretation!) –Focus on Baptism and its consequences for one’s life leads to one of two reactions: quietism or revivalism. –A long term shortage of clergy results because there are no schools or seminaries in the New World
Moving to the New World Church & State Relationship – Historically, Lutherans had understood and participated in this relationship without specifying the precise arrangement of the alliance. Leads to a willingness to engage in social issues The New World’s sense of the relationship was different than the Old World, and that led to some growing pains… What else did Lutherans bring with them?
Moving to the New World 1.Political and Religious Circumstances in Europe 1.The Treaty of Augsburg (1555) 2.The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) 3.The Peace of Westphalia (1648) 2.Opportunity Calls 1.Religious freedom (especially for the Orthodox!) 2.Economic & Business Interests 3.Evangelism (especially for the Pietists!) What brought them here?