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© A New Perspective on Romans 17 July 2013 Bill Brewer — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 1.

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2 © http://historeo.com A New Perspective on Romans 17 July 2013 Bill Brewer — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 1

3 © http://historeo.com Rom 4:1 4:1 (NASB95) What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, has found? 4:1 (NIV84) What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather, discovered in this matter? 4:1 (NIV UK & 2011*) What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, discovered in this matter? The NIV84 is much more common than the NIV2011 — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 according to the flesh according to the flesh 2

4 © http://historeo.com NIV vs. NPP? In this context, I must register one strong protest against one particular translation. When the New International Version was published in 1980, I was one of those who hailed it with delight. I believed its own claim about itself, that it was determined to translate exactly what was there, and inject no extra paraphrasing or interpretative glosses. This contrasted so strongly with the then popular New English Bible, and promised such an advance over the then rather dated Revised Standard Version, that I recommended it to students and members of the congregation I was then serving. Wright, N. T. (2009). Justification: God's Plan and Paul's Vision. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic. pp. 51–52. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 3

5 © http://historeo.com NIV vs. NPP? Disillusionment set in over the next two years, as I lectured verse by verse through several of Paul's letters, not least Galatians and Romans. Again and again, with the Greek text in front of me and the NIV beside it, I discovered that the translators had had another principle, considerably higher than the stated one: to make sure that Paul should say what the broadly Protestant and evangelical tradition said he said. …. I do know that if a church only, or mainly, relies on the NIV it will, quite simply, never understand what Paul was talking about. Wright, N. T. (2002). The New Interpreter’s Bible: a Commentary in Twelve Volumes. Abingdon Press. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 4

6 © http://historeo.com NIV vs. NPP? This is a large claim, and I have made it good, line by line, in relation to Romans in my big commentary, which prints the NIV and the NRSV and then comments on the Greek in relation to both of them. Yes, the NRSV sometimes lets you down, too, but nowhere near as frequently or as badly as the NIV. And, yes, the NIV has now been replaced with newer adaptations in which some at least of the worst features have, I think, been at least modified [e.g., adding “according to the flesh” to Rom. 4:1]. Wright, N. T. (2002). The New Interpreter’s Bible: a Commentary in Twelve Volumes. Abingdon Press. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 5

7 © http://historeo.com NIV vs. NPP? But there are many who, having made the switch to the NIV, are now stuck with reading Romans 3:21-26 … [where], "the righteousness of God" in Romans 3:21 is only allowed to mean "the righteous status which comes to people from God," whereas the equivalent term in Romans 3:25 and Romans 3:26 clearly refers to God's own righteousness— which is presumably why the NIV has translated it as "justice," to avoid having the reader realize the deception. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 6 Wright, N. T. (2002). The New Interpreter’s Bible: a Commentary in Twelve Volumes. Abingdon Press.

8 © http://historeo.com NIV vs. NPP? In the following paragraph [3:29], a similar telltale translation flaw occurs … [in which the] NIV, standing firmly in the tradition that sees no organic connection between justification by faith on the one hand and the inclusion of Gentiles within God's people on the other, resists this clear implication by omitting the word “or’’ altogether. [The preceding examples are just] two straws in a clear and strong wind. And those blown along by this wind may well come to forget that they are reading a visibly and demonstrably flawed translation, and imagine that this is what Paul really said. Whereas, of course, a reading of Paul more wide awake to the world in which he lived and thought would have seen the connections and meanings at once. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 7 Wright, N. T. (2002). The New Interpreter’s Bible: a Commentary in Twelve Volumes. Abingdon Press.

9 © http://historeo.com Rom 3:21-26: Comparison of NASB and NIV Rom 3:21-26 (NASB85) But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets 22 even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction 23 …. 24 being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus 25 whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness.... 26 for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness.... Rom 3:21-26 (NIV84) But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. 22 This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, 23 …. 24 and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. 25 God presented him as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood. He did this to demonstrate his justice.... 26 he did it to demonstrate his justice.... — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 from the Law apart of righteousness in His blood through faith which is in distinction for in righteousness for apart from law from comes in to difference that came by through faith in his blood justice from Biased toward a universal, personal “order of salvation” interpretation Imputed moral righteousness I I Open to a covenantal, corporate “history of salvation” interpretation Real relational righteousness I I

10 © http://historeo.com Rom 3:28-29: Comparison of NASB and NIV 3:28 (NASB95) For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law 29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is He not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3:28 (NIV84) For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from observing the law 29 Is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles too? Yes, of Gentiles too — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 9 Or W HAT ’ S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO VERSIONS ?

11 © http://historeo.com 3:28 (NIV84) For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from observing the law 29 Is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles too? Yes, of Gentiles too 3:28 (NASB95) For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law 29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is He not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also Or Rom 3:28-29: Comparison of NASB and NIV — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 10 W HAT ’ S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO VERSIONS ? 3:28 (NASB95) For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law 29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is He not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also Or A B 3:28 (NIV84) For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from observing the law 29 Is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles too? Yes, of Gentiles too A B OBTW In Romans, “justification by faith apart from works of the law” IS the issue that defines the relationship between Jews and Gentiles Hence the concentration of “justification” in Romans and Galatians In the NIV, vv 28-29 are presented as independent thoughts. Omitting the “Or” severs the logical connection between … V28— the nature of justification and V29— the nature of Jew-Gentile relations [No,] C C

12 © http://historeo.com Differences between the 1984 NIV and the 2011 NIV — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 http://historeo.com/Resources/NIV Deltas - 1984 vs 2011.htm

13 © http://historeo.com Romans Outline I.Introduction (1:1–17) II.The Righteousness of God—from God’s Faithfulness to Man’s Faith (1:18–11:36) A.The Righteousness of God—to Man’s Faith (1:18–5:21) 1.The Wrath of God on Man’s Unrighteousness (1:18–3:20) 2.God’s Saving Righteousness to Faith (3:21–5:21) a)To Faith in Christ Jesus (3:21–31) (1)The Decisive Demonstration of God’s Righteousness in the Death of Jesus (3:21–26) (2)The Consequences for the Self-Understanding of the Jewish People (3:27–31) b)Abraham as a Test Case (4:1–25) c)First Conclusions: The New Perspective of Faith in Relation to the Individual and to Humanity at Large (5:1–21) (1)The New Perspective on the Believer’s Present and Future (5:1–11) (2)The New Perspective on God’s Righteous Purpose for Humankind (5:12– 21) Dunn, J. D. G. (1998). Vol. 38: Romans. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, Incorporated. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 12 b) Abraham as a Test Case (4:1–25)

14 © http://historeo.com Rom 4:1: Why does it matter? 4:1 What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, has found? (NASB) The preceding translation see 4:1 as a question about Abraham’s personal experience It fits well with the Evangelical Protestant insistence on reading Romans in terms of individual salvation 4:1 What then shall we say? Have we found Abraham our forefather according to the flesh? The preceding translation sees 4:1 as a question about the interpretation (midrash) of God’s promise to Abraham Fits the New Perspective on Paul in reading Romans in terms of covenant… Paul follows 4:1 with a midrash of God’s promise to Abraham that challenges head-on the most widely accepted way for Jews to understand God’s reckoning of righteousness to Abraham — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 13

15 © http://historeo.com Types of Jewish Exegesis (Interpretation) Hyper-Literalism: Emphasis on the “letter” Gal 3:16, … [God] does not say, “… seeds,” … but … “… to your seed” Paraphrase: E.g., Targum (Aramaic translation) of Prov 25:22, “For you will heap burning coals on his head … and God will make him your friend” (RE: Rom 12:20) Allegory (extended metaphor): Not dependent upon historical fact Rom 7:1-6, “…made to die to the Law…[to] be joined to another…” Pesher: Text is a mystery solved by an inspired connection to person/event Gospel of Matthew, “this is that ….” Typology: correspondence of divine appointments within salvation history Rom 4:23-24, “Now not for his sake only was it written that it was credited to him, 24 but for our sake also….” Midrash (“inquiry”): interpretation/application of Torah Rom 4:3-22: Gen 15:6; Ps 32:1-2; Gen 17:10-11; 17:4-6; 17:5; 15:5; 17:17 Midrash (“inquiry”): interpretation/application of Torah Rom 4:3-22: Gen 15:6; Ps 32:1-2; Gen 17:10-11; 17:4-6; 17:5; 15:5; 17:17 Prov 25:22 Prov 25:22 For you will heap burning coals on his head, And the LORD will reward you. Gal 3:16 Gal 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as referring to many, but rather to one, “And to your seed,” that is, Christ. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 14 Rom 12:20 12:20 “But if your enemy is hungry, feed him, and if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.”

16 © http://historeo.com Midrash (interpretation) “Midrash” (interpretation) comes from “darash,” (to enquire) “Midrash” occurs only twice in the Bible “The story of the prophet Iddo” (2 Chron 13:22) “The story of the book of the kings” (2 Chron 24:27) But its biblical significance is huge Similar to the significance of… Biblical commentaries plus Biblical interpretation to the Bible “Midrash” refers to two big things The science/art of interpretation The products of such interpretation; e.g., Midrash of Shemhazai and Azazel Compare… “mahalak” (journey) from “halak” (to walk) “mitsvah” (commandment) from “tsavah” (to command) — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 15

17 © http://historeo.com Rules of Jewish Interpretation The Seven Middoth (rules) of Hillel 1.“qal wahomer” — lighter to heavier 2.“gezerah shawah” — similar laws, similar verdicts 3.“binyan ab mikathub ‘ehad” — a standard from a passage of Scripture 4.“binyan ab mishene kethubim” — a standard from two passages of Scripture 5.“kelal upherat” — general and particular 6.“kayoze bo bemaqom ‘aher” — like that in another place 7.“dabar halamed me’inyano” — something proved by the context Rules in blue are logical in nature (1,5,7) Remaining are rules for verbal associations (2,3,4,6) Hillel’s seven rules later expanded into 13, then 32, including gematria (connecting passages based on numerical equivalences, substitutions) Most of Hillel’s rules carry little weight in modern-day rules of interpretation Subsequent additions would be subject to substantial ridicule Paul’s use of the rules is more a matter of rhetoric than a divine stamp of approval “qal wahomer” — lighter to heavier “kelal upherat” — general and particular “dabar halamed me’inyano” — something proved by the context — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 16

18 © http://historeo.com Rules of Jewish Interpretation The Seven Middoth (rules) of Hillel 1.“qal wahomer” — lighter to heavier 2.“gezerah shawah” — similar laws, similar verdicts 3.“binyan ab mikathub ‘ehad” — a standard from a passage of Scripture 4.“binyan ab mishene kethubim” — a standard from two passages of Scripture 5.“kelal upherat” — general and particular 6.“kayoze bo bemaqom ‘aher” — like that in another place 7.“dabar halamed me’inyano” — something proved by the context Rom 11:12 Now if [Israel’s] transgression is riches for the world and their failure is riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their fulfillment be! Rom 11:24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these who are the natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree? Also see Rom 5:8-11 — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 17

19 © http://historeo.com Rules of Jewish Interpretation The Seven Middoth (rules) of Hillel 1.“qal wahomer” — lighter to heavier 2.“gezerah shawah” — similar laws, similar verdicts 3.“binyan ab mikathub ‘ehad” — a standard from a passage of Scripture 4.“binyan ab mishene kethubim” — a standard from two passages of Scripture 5.“kelal upherat” — general and particular 6.“kayoze bo bemaqom ‘aher” — like that in another place 7.“dabar halamed me’inyano” — something proved by the context Romans 4: V3 quotes Gen 15:6 on “credited” or “reckoned” V7-8 quotes Ps 32:1-2 on “credited” or “reckoned” Vv9-11 argue from context that Abraham was reckoned as righteous prior to his circumcision 1.gezerah shawah 7.dabar halamed me’inyano “gezerah shawah” — similar laws, similar verdicts “dabar halamed me’inyano” — something proved by the context — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 18

20 © http://historeo.com Rom 4:1-25 V ERSES O UTLINE 1–2Introduction (in continued diatribe style) 3The text to be explained— Gen 15:6 “Abraham believed [“pisteuō”] God, and it was credited [“logizomai”] to him as righteousness” 4–8The meaning of “credited” [“logizomai”] 4–5from the logic of divine-human relations 6–8from its use in Ps 32:1-2 9–21The meaning of [“pisteuō”] 9–12from the order of events in Abraham’s case 13–17from the link between faith and promise in Abraham’s case 17–21from the character of Abraham’s faith 22Conclusion— the text explained 23–25Corollary— its wider application as thus understood Dunn, J. D. G. (1998). Romans 1–8. Word Biblical Commentary (Vol. 38A, p. 198). Dallas: Word, Incorporated. 1–2 3 4–5 6–8 9–12 13–17 17–21 22 23–25 Ps 32:1-2 13 For the promise to Abraham or to his descendants that he would be heir of the world was not through the Law, but through the righteousness of faith. 14 For if those who are of the Law are heirs, faith is made void and the promise is nullified; 15 for the Law brings about wrath, but where there is no law, neither is there violation. 16 For this reason it is by faith, that it might be in accordance with grace, in order that the promise may be certain to all the descendants, not only to those who are of the Law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, 17 (as it is written, “A father of many nations have I made you” ) in the sight of Him whom he believed, even God, who gives life to the dead and calls into being that which does not exist. 4 Now to the one who works, his wage is not reckoned as a favor, but as what is due. 5 But to the one who does not work, but believes in Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness, 17 (as it is written, “A father of many nations have I made you” ) in the sight of Him whom he believed, even God, who gives life to the dead and calls into being that which does not exist. 18 In hope against hope he believed, in order that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, “So shall your descendants be.” 19 And without becoming weak in faith he contemplated his own body, now as good as dead since he was about a hundred years old, and the deadness of Sarah’s womb; 20 yet, with respect to the promise of God, he did not waver in unbelief, but grew strong in faith, giving glory to God, 21 and being fully assured that what He had promised, He was able also to perform. 6 just as David also speaks of the blessing upon the man to whom God reckons righteousness apart from works: 7 “Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven, And whose sins have been covered. 8 “Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will not take into account.” 9 Is this blessing then upon the circumcised, or upon the uncircumcised also? For we say, “Faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness.” 10 How then was it reckoned? While he was circumcised, or uncircumcised? Not while circumcised, but while uncircumcised; 11 and he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all who believe without being circumcised, that righteousness might be reckoned to them, 12 and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also follow in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham which he had while uncircumcised. 3 For what does the Scripture say? “And Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness.” 1 What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, has found? 2 For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about; but not before God. 22 Therefore also it was reckoned to him as righteousness. 23 Now not for his sake only was it written, that it was reckoned to him, 24 but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, 25 He who was delivered up because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification. Ps 32:1-2 Blessed is he whose transgression is lifted, whose sin is covered. 2 Blessed is the man against whom the Lord counts no iniquity and in whose spirit there is no deceit. — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 19

21 © http://historeo.com — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 20 Rom 4:1-25 “The exposition of Gen 15:6 of which chap. 4 consists is one of the finest examples of Jewish midrash available to us from this era” Dunn, J. D. G. (1998). Word Biblical Commentary (Vol. 38, p. 197). Dallas: Word, Inc.

22 © http://historeo.com Rom 4:1: Why does it matter? 4:1 What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, has found? (NASB) The preceding translation see 4:1 as a question about Abraham’s personal experience It fits well with the Evangelical Protestant insistence on reading Romans in terms of individual salvation 4:1 What then shall we say? Have we found Abraham our forefather according to the flesh? The preceding translation sees 4:1 as a question about the interpretation (midrash) of God’s promise to Abraham Fits the New Perspective on Paul in reading Romans in terms of covenant… Paul follows 4:1 with a midrash of God’s promise to Abraham that challenges head-on the most widely accepted way for Jews to understand God’s reckoning of righteousness to Abraham (see Gen 26:4-5) — Bill Brewer 17 Jul 2013 21 Gen 26:4-5 Gen 26:4-5 “I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven, and will give your descendants all these lands; and by your descendants all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; 5 because Abraham obeyed Me and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes and My laws.”

23 © http://historeo.com Rom 4:1 — Bill Brewer 10 Jul 2013 Most translations us commas to make “our father/forefather according to the flesh” parenthetical The NIV goes further by eliminating “according to the flesh” altogether In all, “our father/forefather according to the flesh” is rendered totally irrelevant to the point Paul is allegedly making That is, Abraham is to be understood an example of “every man” — of how every person finds personal salvation The NPP alternative is that Abraham IS NOT “every man” Rather he is a central figure in the history of salvation, the spiritual father of both Jew and Gentile over against Adam, the fleshy father of them all Thus Paul’s question in 4:1, “have we found Abraham our forefather according to the flesh? 22 The answer is “no” and Paul’s offers an alternative midrash to back it up!

24 © http://historeo.com 17 Jul 2013 BACKUPS — Bill Brewer 23


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