Presentation on theme: "Or when was the Bible written And what books are recognized."— Presentation transcript:
Or when was the Bible written And what books are recognized
. The Bible contains the central religious texts of JudaismJudaism and Christianity
According to the Online Etymology Dictionary,Online Etymology Dictionary the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin, as used in the phrase biblia sacra ("holy book”) In the Latin of the Middle Ages, the neuter plural for Biblia (gen. bibliorum) gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae, in which singular form the word has passed into the languages of the Western world.")
This stemmed from the Greek termGreek τ ὰ βιβλία τ ὰ ἅ για (ta biblia ta hagia), "the holy books", which derived from βιβλίον (biblion), "paper" or "scroll," the ordinary word for "book", which was originally a diminutive of βύβλος (byblos, "Egyptian papyrus"), possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece.bookPhoenicianByblospapyrus
Biblical scholars state that the Greek phrase Ta biblia ("the books") was "an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books several centuries before the time of Jesus," [ and would have referred to the Septuagint.JesusSeptuagint The Online Etymology Dictionary states, "The Christian scripture was referred to in Greek as Ta Biblia as early as c.223.Greek
The Bible is a compilation of various texts or "books" of different ages.Biblebooks The dates of many of the texts of the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament) are difficult to establish.Hebrew Bible Textual criticismTextual criticism places all of them within the 1st millennium BC, although there is considerable uncertainty as to the century in some cases.1st millennium BC The oldest surviving Hebrew Bible manuscripts date to about the 2nd century BC (fragmentary), the oldest record of the complete text survives in Greek translation, dating to the 4th century (Codex Sinaiticus) and the oldest extant manuscripts of the vocalized Masoretic text upon which modern editions are based date to the 9th [ambiguous] century.Hebrew Bible manuscriptsfragmentaryGreek translationCodex SinaiticusMasoretic textambiguous
The individual books of the New Testament may be dated with some confidence to the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The earliest fragment of the New Testament is the Rylands Library Papyrus P52, a piece of the Gospel of John dated to the first half of the 2nd century. For this reason, dating the composition of the texts relies on textual criticism, philological and linguistic evidence, as well as direct references to historical events in the texts instead of dating the physical manuscripts.New TestamentRylands Library Papyrus P52Gospel of Johntextual criticism philological
The Oldest manuscripts The oldest known preserved fragment of a Torah text is a good luck charm inscribed with a text close to, although not identical with, the Priestly Blessing found in Num 6:24–27, dated to approximately 600 BC  The oldest complete or nearly complete texts are found in the Dead Sea Scrolls from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. The collections contain all the books of the Tanakh except for the Book of Esther, although not all are complete.Priestly Blessing Dead Sea ScrollsBook of Esther
The Oldest manuscripts According to tradition the Torah was translated into Greek (the Septuagint, or LXX, from the traditional number of translators) in the 3rd century BC. Septuagint The oldest Greek manuscripts include 2nd century BC fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy and 1st century BC fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets.Leviticus DeuteronomyExodusNumbersMinor Prophets Relatively complete manuscripts of the Septuagint include the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209 and the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century— these are the oldest surviving nearly-complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language. Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209Codex SinaiticusCodex Alexandrinus Codex Saiticus Fragment from Esther
The Oldest manuscripts The Hebrew or Masoretic text of the Torah is held by tradition to have been assembled in the 4th century AD, but the oldest extant complete or near-complete manuscripts are the Aleppo Codex, ca. 920 AD, and the Westminster Leningrad Codex, dated to 1008 AD.Hebrew Masoretic text Aleppo Codex Westminster Leningrad Codex
Judaism Modern Judaism generally recognizes a single set of canonical books known as the Tanakh, or Hebrew Bible, as it is written almost entirely in the Hebrew language, with some small portions in Aramaic. canonical books TanakhHebrew Bible Hebrew languageAramaic It is traditionally divided into three parts: the Torah ("teaching" or "law"), the Nevi'im ("prophets"), and the Ketuvim ("writings").Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim
The Hebrew Bible The authorship of the various texts in Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) is an open topic of research. Therefore, assigning solid dates to any of the texts is difficult.Tanakh Hebrew Bible The range of dates assigned to the Torah (Pentateuch) is rather broad. It is certain to predate the 2nd century BC, and estimates of its oldest elements range from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC. The bulk of the Tanakh was likely complete by the end of the Babylonian captivity (537 BC).Torah10th6thBabylonian captivity
The Hebrew Bible Torah Some groups, e.g. the Orthodox Jewish community, adhere to the chronology given in the Hebrew Bible, which states the Children of Israel came out Egypt 480 years before King Solomon began construction of the Temple in Jerusalem, placing the date of the Exodus in 1446 BC. This would mean the Torah was written between 1446 BC and 1406 BC. Some critical scholars (the 'Biblical Minimalists"), however, insist that the whole of the Torah shows evidence of its construction composed after 538 BC, perhaps with material from an earlier oral tradition, as it were, a "prequel" to the prophetic books.Biblical MinimalistsTorahprequelprophetic books Others, such as archeologist Israel Finkelstein, tend to suggest that a substantial portion of the Pentateuch is a 7th century BC construction, designed to promote the dynastic ambitions of King Josiah of Judah. The 6th century BC Books of Kings tells of the rediscovery of an old book by King Josiah, which would be the oldest part of the Torah, around which Josiah's scribes would have fabricated the remaining text:Israel FinkelsteinJosiahBooks of Kings And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe, I have found the book of the law in the house of the LORD. And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it. (2 Kings 22:8 KJV)HilkiahShaphanKJV
The Hebrew Bible Torah Under Josiah's rule there would then for the first time have been a unified and state of Judah, centralized around the worship of Yahweh based at the Temple in Jerusalem, with texts portraying King Josiah as the legitimate successor to the legendary David and thus the rightful ruler of Judah. According to this interpretation, neighboring countries that kept many written records, such as Egypt, Persia, etc., have no writings about the stories of the Bible or its main characters before 650 BC, and the archaeological record of pre-Josiac Israel does not support the existence of a unified state in the time of David. However, this view is challenged by references to the "House of David" and Davidic Kings of Israel in 9th century BC inscriptions.JosiahTemple in JerusalemEgyptPersia A traditional strain of scholarship [who?] would assign portions of the Pentateuch (generally, the J author) to the period of the United Monarchy in the 10th century BC, would date Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomic history to the time of King Josiah, and that the final form of the Torah was due to a redactor in exilic or postexilic times (6th century BC). This view is based on the account of the finding of the "book of law" in 2 Kings 22:8, which would correspond to the core of Deuteronomy, and the remaining parts of the Torah would have been composed to supply a background from traditional accounts to the rediscovered text.who?JUnited MonarchyDeuteronomic history
The Hebrew Bible Views on Torah Traditional View Torah composed between 1446 BC and 1406 BC, with the remaining books composed between 1400 BC to 400 BC. This is the traditional view of Orthodox Judaism and historic Christianity, though there may be evidence of editing of the books between 1000 and 400 BC.
The Hebrew Bible Views on Torah Documentary hypothesis Documentary hypothesis Four independent documents: Jahwist, Jahwist Elohist, Elohist Deuteronomist Deuteronomist Priestly source), composed between 900-550 BC, redacted circa 450 BC, possibly by Ezra Priestly sourceEzra
The Hebrew Bible Views on Torah Supplementary models - Torah composed as a series of authorial expansions of an original source document, usually identified as J or P, largely during the 7th and 6th centuries BC, final form achieved c. 450 BC. Fragmentary models (Torah the product of the slow accretion of fragmentary traditions, (no documents), over period 850-550 BC, final form c. 450 BC. Biblical minimalism Torah composed in Hellenistic-Hasmonean period, c. 300-140 BC.Biblical minimalism HellenisticHasmonean
The Hebrew Bible Nevi'im The major Nevi'im ("Prophets").Nevi'im The Books of Kings mentions the following sources:Books of Kings The "book of the acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41) The "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.) The "book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel" (14:19; 15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.). The date of its composition was perhaps some time between 561 BC, the date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and 538 BC, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus the Great.JehoiachinEvil-merodachCyrus the Great The Book of Isaiah, in its present form, is by most scholars considered the result of an extensive editing process, in which the promises of God's salvation are reinterpreted and claimed for the Judean people through the history of their exile and return to the land of Judah. Very few scholars dispute these conclusions and argue for multiple authors. When the Septuagint version was made (about 250 BC), the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz. In the time of Jesus, the book existed in its present form, with many prophecies in the disputed portions quoted in the New Testament as the words of IsaiahBook of IsaiahJudahSeptuagintNew Testament
Book of Nevi'im Scholarly dating Book of Joshua ca. 625 BC by the Deuteronomist (called D) working with traditional materialsDeuteronomist Book of Judges ca. 625 BC by the Deuteronomist (called D) working with traditional materialsDeuteronomist Book of Samuel ca. 625 BC by the Deuteronomist (called D) working with traditional materialsDeuteronomist Book of Kings ca. 625 BC by the Deuteronomist (called D) working with traditional materialsDeuteronomist Book of Isaiah Three main authors and an extensive editing process: Isaiah 1-39 "Historical Isaiah" with multiple layers of editing, 8th cent. BC Isaiah 40-55 Exilic(Deutero-Isaiah), 6th century BC Isaiah 56-66 post-exilic(Trito-Isaiah), 6th- 5th century BC
Book of Jeremiahlate 6th century BC or later Book of Ezekiel6th century BC or later Book of Hosea8th century BC or later Book of Joelunknown Book of AmosAfter the 6th century BC Book of Obadiah6th century BC or later Book of Jonah6th century BC or later Book of Micahmid 6th century BC or later Book of Nahum8th century BC or later Book of Habakkuk6th century BC or later Book of Zephaniah7th century BC or later Book of Haggai5th century BC or later Book of Zechariah5th century BC or later Book of MalachiEarly 5th century BC or later
The Hebrew Bible Ketuvim ( Hagiographia) Scholarship on the dating of the Book of Daniel largely falls into two camps: one dates the book in its entirety to a single author during the desecration of the Jerusalem Temple (167–164 BC) under the Syrian-Greek ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ruled 175–164 BC); the other sees it as a collection of stories dating from different times throughout the Hellenistic period (with some of the material possibly going back to very late Persian period), with the visions in chapters 7–12 having been added during the desecration of Antiochus.Antiochus IV Epiphanes The reasons for these dates include a use of Greek and Persian words in the Hebrew of the text unlikely to happen in the 6th century, that the style of the Hebrew and Aramaic was more like that of a later date, that the use of the word "Chaldean" occurs in a fashion unknown to the 6th century, and that repeated historical gaffes betray an ignorance of the facts of the 6th century that a high official in Babylon would not have, while the 2nd-century history was found to be far more accurate.GreekPersianAramaicChaldean
Book of Ketuvim Scholarly dating Psalms The bulk of the Psalms appear to have been written for use in the Temple, which existed from around 950-586 BC and, after rebuilding, from the 5th century BC until AD 70. Book of Proverbs Some old material from the ancient sages, some later material from the 6th century BC or later, some material borrowed from the ancient Egyptian text called the Instructions of AmenemopetInstructions of Amenemopet Book of Job5th century BC
Song of SongsSong of Songs or Song of SolomonSong of Solomon scholarly estimates vary between 950 BC to 200 BC Book of Ruth6th century BC or later Lamentations6th century BC or later Ecclesiastes4th century BC or later Book of Esther4th century BC or later Book of Danielmid 2nd century BC Book of EzraBook of Ezra-Book of NehemiahBook of Nehemiah4th century BC or slightly later Chronicles4th century BC or slightly later
The Hebrew Bible Deuterocanonical books Deuterocanonical books are books considered by the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodoxy to be canonical parts of the Christian Old Testament but are not present in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and Protestant Bible. Deuterocanonical booksRoman Catholic ChurchEastern Orthodoxy Tanakh Protestant
Deuterocanonical books Book of Deuterocanon Scholarly dating Tobit2nd century BC Judith 1 Maccabeesca. 100 BC 2 Maccabeesca. 124 BC 3 Maccabees 1st century BC or 1st century AD 4 Maccabees 1st century BC or 1st century AD Book of Deuterocanon Scholarly dating Wisdom during the Jewish Hellenistic periodJewish Hellenistic Sirach2nd century BC Letter of Jeremiahunknown Additions to Daniel2nd century BC Baruch during or shortly after the period of the MaccabeesMaccabees
Christianity Christianity recognises as canonical the books of the Tanakh, in a different order, as the Old Testament. In Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, additional books, called the Deuterocanonical, are included, which Protestantism regards as apocryphal.Old Testament Roman CatholicismEastern OrthodoxyDeuterocanonicalProtestantism apocryphal All Christians also recognise the New Testament, a collection of early Christian writings that consists of the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles, and the Apocalypse. There exist New Testament apocrypha which have not been generally recognisedNew TestamentGospelsActs of the ApostlesEpistlesApocalypseNew Testament apocrypha
Christianity The New Testament The most accepted historical understanding of how the Synoptic gospels developed is known as the two- source hypothesis. This theory holds that Mark is the oldest gospel.Synoptic gospelstwo- source hypothesisoldest gospel Matthew and Luke are believed to come later, and draw on Mark and also on a source that is now believed to be lost, called the Q document, or just "Q".Q document
Christianity The New Testament But there some Theologian-Bible Scholars Such as Fr. Paul Tarazi who hold that Mathew was the Last written Following after John
Christianity The New Testament Traditional views assume that the bulk of New Testament texts date to the period between AD 45 and AD 100, with the Pauline epistles among the earliest texts. Pauline epistles Other views may pre- or post-date the individual books by several decades. The earliest preserved fragment for each text is included as well.
Christianity The New Testament the Gospels & Acts Book Scholarly Opinions Earliest preserved fragment Gospel of MatthewAD 70-100 (AD 150 – 200)AD Gospel of MarkAD 63-85(AD 350) Gospel of LukeAD 70-100 (AD 175 – 250) Gospel of JohnAD 90-110 (AD 125 – 160) ActsAD 80-100(AD 250)
Christianity The New Testament the epistles of St. Paul Book Scholarly Opinions Earliest preserved fragment RomansAD 57–58 (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD) CorinthiansAD 57 (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD) GalatiansAD 45-55 (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD) EphesiansAD 65 (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD) PhilippiansAD 57–62 (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD) ColossiansAD 60+ (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD)
Christianity The New Testament the epistles of St. Paul Book Scholarly Opinions Earliest preserved fragment 1 ThessaloniansAD 50 (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD) 2 ThessaloniansAD 50(AD 300) TimothyAD 60-100 Codex SinaiticusCodex Sinaiticus (AD 350) TitusAD 60-100 (AD 200) PhilemonAD 56 (3rd century AD) HebrewsAD 80-90 (late 2nd century or 3rd century AD)
Christianity The New Testament the epistles Book Scholarly Opinions Earliest preserved fragment JamesAD 50-200(early 3rd century AD) First PeterAD 60-96(3rd / 4th century AD) Second PeterAD 60-130(3rd / 4th century AD) Epistles of JohnAD 90-100 Uncial 0232, Codex Sinaiticus (3rd / 4th century AD)Uncial 0232Codex Sinaiticus JudeAD 66-90 (3rd / 4th century AD)
Christianity The New Testament the book of Revelation Book Scholarly Opinions Earliest preserved fragment RevelationAD 68-100 (AD 150 – 200)
Biblical canon What is it? A Biblical canon or canon of scripture is a list or set of Biblical books considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular religious community, generally in Judaism or Christianity. The term itself was first coined by Christians, but the idea is found in Jewish sources. The internal wording of the text can also be specified, for example: the Masoretic Text is the canonical text for Judaism, and the King James Version is the canonical text for the King-James-Only Movement, but this is not the general meaning of canon.setBiblicalscriptureJudaism ChristianityMasoretic TextKing James VersionKing-James-Only Movement The canons listed below are usually considered closed (i.e., books cannot be added or removed  ). The closure of the canon reflects a belief that public revelation has ended and thus the inspired texts may be gathered into a complete and authoritative canon.  By contrast, an open canon permits the addition of additional books through the process of continuous revelation. In Christian traditions, an open canon is most commonly associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). revelation  continuous revelationThe Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints These canonical books have been developed through debate and agreement by the religious authorities of their respective faiths. Believers consider these canonical books to be inspired by God or to express the authoritative history of the relationship between God and his people. Books excluded from a particular canon are considered non-canonical — however, many disputed books considered non-canonical or even apocryphal by some are considered Biblical apocrypha or Deuterocanonical or fully canonical, by others. There are differences between the Jewish and Christian canons, and between the canons of different Christian denominations. The differing criteria and processes of canonization dictate what the communities regard as the inspired books.Goddisputed booksapocryphalBiblical apocryphaDeuterocanonicalChristian Christian denominations
Biblical canon Canonical texts The word "canon" is derived from the Greek noun κανών "kanon" meaning "reed" or "cane," or also "rule" or "measure," which itself is derived from the Hebrew word קנה "kaneh" and is often used as a standard of measurement. Thus, a canonical text is a single authoritative edition for a given work. The establishing of a canonical text may involve an editorial selection from biblical manuscript traditions with varying interdependence. Significant separate manuscript traditions in the Hebrew Bible are represented in the Septuagint, the Targums and Peshitta, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Masoretic Text, and the Dead Sea scrolls.biblical manuscriptHebrew Bible SeptuagintTargumsPeshittaSamaritan PentateuchMasoretic TextDead Sea scrolls .
Biblical canon Jewish canon Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the twenty- four books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. Evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BCE and 200 CE, indeed a popular position is that the Torah was canonized circa 400 BCE, the Prophets circa 200 BCE, and the Writings circa 100 CE  perhaps at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia—however this position is increasingly criticised by modern scholars. Rabbinic JudaismMasoretic TextTorahProphets Writings Council of Jamnia
Earliest Christian Communities Though the Early Church used the Old Testament according to the canon of the Septuagint (LXX),Early ChurchOld TestamentSeptuagint The apostles did not otherwise leave a defined set of new scriptures; instead the New Testament developed over time.apostlesscripturesNew Testament Biblical canon Christian canons
The writings attributed to the apostles circulated amongst the earliest Christian communities. The Pauline epistles were circulating in collected form by the end of the first century AD. Justin Martyr, in the early second century, mentions the "memoirs of the apostles," which Christians called "gospels" and which were regarded as on par with the Old Testament. [13Pauline epistlesJustin Martyr [13
Biblical canon Christian canons The first major figure to codify the Biblical canon was Origen of Alexandria. He was a scholar well educated in the realm of both theology and pagan philosophy.Origen Origen decided to make his canon include all of the books in the current Catholic canon except for four books: James, 2nd Peter, and 2nd and 3rd epistles of John . He also included the Shepherd of Hermas which was later rejected. This was the first major attempt at the compilation of certain books and letters as authoritative and inspired teaching for the Church at the time.James2nd Peter 2nd3rd epistles of John Shepherd of Hermas
Biblical canon Christian canons The 2nd and 3rd centuries that wrote a great deal of works and used the letters of the apostles as foundation and justification for their own personal beliefs. However, there was still the problem of the Roman Empire, and while the persecutions of the Roman Empire were many and extreme, the persecution still occurred and possibly interfered with the initial canonization of the New Testament. This period in church history writings is known as the "Edificatory Period" and was followed by the "Apologetic" "Polemical" and "Scientific" Periods. Some of the Christian writers of this edificatory Period are: Irenaus, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Cyprian, Justin Martyr, Clement of Rome
Likewise by 200 the Muratorian fragment shows that there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the New Testament, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them.Muratorian fragment Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings were accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the third century. A four gospel canon (the Tetramorph) was asserted by Irenaeus, c. 160. By the early 200's, Origen of Alexandria may have been using the same 27 books found in modern New Testament editions, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of Hebrews, James, II Peter, II and III John, and Revelation IrenaeusOrigen of Alexandria
Orthodoxy and Canon The question is not so much whether Orthodoxy thinks of the Scriptures as canonical, but rather what the terms "inspired" and "canon" mean to us. First, let's state what the canon of Scripture is not. 1) It is not a comprehensive handbook for liturgical worship. 2) It is not a book of systematic theology. 3) It is not the ultimate authority. 4) it is not a textbook of history or science. So, from the Orthodox point of view, what is it?
It is a SELECTIVE (not exclusive) body of writings which reflects the teachings of the Church. These writings, taken together and correctly interpreted, truly proclaim the Gospel. They are inspired, but not dictated. They are the product of the Church. The Church wrote them, preserved them, approved them, assembled them into a canon, interprets them, and lives by them.
A perfectly usable definition of the canon of Scripture is "Those books used by the Church in common worship."
But even within the inspired canon, there are distinctions. During the Liturgy, the Gospels are read by the Bishop, Priest, or Deacon. The Acts/Epistles are read by a reader or layman. One stands for the reading of the Gospel. One may sit for the reading from the Acts/Epistles. The book of Revelations is never read during public worship. The message is clear. Though both are inspired, the Gospels stand on higher ground than the Acts/Epistles. The Orthodox canon includes the entire Septuagint version of the Old Testament, and the same New Testament that all Christians use.