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Exposition by Dr. Clifford Rhymes. Graphic layout by Clifford Rhymes. Each of the Sixteen Fundamental Truths will be introduced and quoted. Each quote.

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Presentation on theme: "Exposition by Dr. Clifford Rhymes. Graphic layout by Clifford Rhymes. Each of the Sixteen Fundamental Truths will be introduced and quoted. Each quote."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Exposition by Dr. Clifford Rhymes. Graphic layout by Clifford Rhymes. Each of the Sixteen Fundamental Truths will be introduced and quoted. Each quote will be highlighted in colored font in the text. Scripture taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®. NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Publishing House. All rights reserved.

5 1. The Scriptures Inspired The AG Statement of Fundamental Truths states: “The Scriptures, both the Old and New Testaments, are verbally inspired of God and are the revelation of God to man, the infallible, authoritative rule of faith and conduct (2 Timothy 3:15-17; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 2 Peter 1:21).”“The Scriptures, both the Old and New Testaments, are verbally inspired of God and are the revelation of God to man, the infallible, authoritative rule of faith and conduct (2 Timothy 3:15-17; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 2 Peter 1:21).”

6 1. The Scriptures Inspired The Old and New Testaments contain the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon.The Old and New Testaments contain the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon. “The word ‘canon’ means ‘a rule, a standard, a measuring rod.’ Therefore, a book considered canonical is a book that has met certain criteria, or standards” (Horton 29).“The word ‘canon’ means ‘a rule, a standard, a measuring rod.’ Therefore, a book considered canonical is a book that has met certain criteria, or standards” (Horton 29).

7 1. The Scriptures Inspired Four standards were generally applied to early texts: “Apostolicity: Was the book the product of an apostle or a close associate of an apostle” (such as Mark or Luke)?“Apostolicity: Was the book the product of an apostle or a close associate of an apostle” (such as Mark or Luke)? Universality: Was the book widely accepted and used in the churches?Universality: Was the book widely accepted and used in the churches?

8 1. The Scriptures Inspired “Contents: Did the subject matter of the book appear to be on a plane with known Scripture?”“Contents: Did the subject matter of the book appear to be on a plane with known Scripture?” “Inspiration: Did the book bear the special quality that speaks of divine inspiration?” (Horton 29-30).“Inspiration: Did the book bear the special quality that speaks of divine inspiration?” (Horton 29-30).

9 1. The Scriptures Inspired With a few exceptions, the New Testament canon as we have it was listed as early as A.D. 170 (the Muratorian Canon).With a few exceptions, the New Testament canon as we have it was listed as early as A.D. 170 (the Muratorian Canon).

10 1. The Scriptures Inspired By A.D. 367 Athanasius, an Early Church father and bishop of Alexandria, listed all the books of the New Testament that we use today.By A.D. 367 Athanasius, an Early Church father and bishop of Alexandria, listed all the books of the New Testament that we use today. The Council of Carthage in A.D. 397 again affirmed the twenty-seven books of the New Testament.The Council of Carthage in A.D. 397 again affirmed the twenty-seven books of the New Testament.

11 1. The Scriptures Inspired When we say that the Scriptures are inspired, we do not mean that the Bible was created by “mechanical dictation” of God (Horton 22) nor, on the opposite end, that it contains only human ideas or ethics.When we say that the Scriptures are inspired, we do not mean that the Bible was created by “mechanical dictation” of God (Horton 22) nor, on the opposite end, that it contains only human ideas or ethics. “The Greek word most nearly equivalent to our word ‘inspiration’ is found in 2 Timothy 3:16. It is theopneustos. It means, literally, ‘God- breathed.’” (Horton 21).“The Greek word most nearly equivalent to our word ‘inspiration’ is found in 2 Timothy 3:16. It is theopneustos. It means, literally, ‘God- breathed.’” (Horton 21).

12 1. The Scriptures Inspired “…and how from infancy you have known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.” —2 Tim 3:15-17

13 1. The Scriptures Inspired Inspiration means that by “divine breath and power the Holy Spirit moved the (human) authors of the Bible with such a precision that the product accurately reflects the intention of God himself” (Horton 21).Inspiration means that by “divine breath and power the Holy Spirit moved the (human) authors of the Bible with such a precision that the product accurately reflects the intention of God himself” (Horton 21).

14 1. The Scriptures Inspired The human authors wrote from their own background, language, and culture, yet they were led or “carried along” by the Holy Spirit, thus ensuring the divine content of what they wrote.The human authors wrote from their own background, language, and culture, yet they were led or “carried along” by the Holy Spirit, thus ensuring the divine content of what they wrote.

15 1. The Scriptures Inspired “Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation. For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” —2 Peter 1:20-21

16 1. The Scriptures Inspired “And we also thank God continually because, when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but as it actually is, the word of God, which is at work in you who believe.” —1 Thess. 2:13

17 1. The Scriptures Inspired What else can we briefly note about the Scriptures? The Bible is: God’s written word to humankind – Mk. 7:13; Acts 4:25; 28:25God’s written word to humankind – Mk. 7:13; Acts 4:25; 28:25 Infallible – Ps. 19:7 (cf. Titus 1:2)Infallible – Ps. 19:7 (cf. Titus 1:2) Inerrant – Prov. 30:5Inerrant – Prov. 30:5 Inspired in its entirety – Ro. 15:4Inspired in its entirety – Ro. 15:4 Verbal (a language deposit) – Mt. 4:4Verbal (a language deposit) – Mt. 4:4

18 1. The Scriptures Inspired Confluent (dual authorship) – 2 Sa. 23:2Confluent (dual authorship) – 2 Sa. 23:2 Authoritative – Is. 1:2Authoritative – Is. 1:2 Sufficient – 2 Tim. 3:15 (cf. Acts 17:11)Sufficient – 2 Tim. 3:15 (cf. Acts 17:11) Lucid – Ps. 119:105 (cf. 2 Pt. 3:16)Lucid – Ps. 119:105 (cf. 2 Pt. 3:16) Efficacious (life-changing) – He. 4:12; Is. 55:11Efficacious (life-changing) – He. 4:12; Is. 55:11 Christ-centered – Lk. 24:27; Jn. 20:31Christ-centered – Lk. 24:27; Jn. 20:31 (Ideas condensed from “Biblical Revelation,” by Clark Pinnock.)

19 1. The Scriptures Inspired What can we say about Bible translations? Bible translations usually fall into one of three types:Bible translations usually fall into one of three types: Literal – word for wordLiteral – word for word Dynamic Equivalence – thought for thoughtDynamic Equivalence – thought for thought Paraphrase – much more freeParaphrase – much more free This can be diagramed as the following:This can be diagramed as the following:

20 Literal – Word for Word Dynamic Equivalence – Thought for Thought Paraphrase Interlinear NASB KJV RSV NIV NJB GNB JBP NLB MSG NKJV TNIV 1. The Scriptures Inspired Chart inspired by Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982, 36.

21 Literal translations are often more faithful to the original languages, but are often more difficult to read in the receptor language.Literal translations are often more faithful to the original languages, but are often more difficult to read in the receptor language. Paraphrases are often very easy to read, but may add more interpretation than is necessary.Paraphrases are often very easy to read, but may add more interpretation than is necessary. Dynamic equivalence translations try to strike a balance between the two.Dynamic equivalence translations try to strike a balance between the two. 1. The Scriptures Inspired

22 Dynamic equivalence and paraphrase are a necessary part of any translation to transfer meaning from the original to the receptor language.Dynamic equivalence and paraphrase are a necessary part of any translation to transfer meaning from the original to the receptor language. Since there is a residue of untranslatable truth in the original language and no one translation captures all the meaning, use several translations.Since there is a residue of untranslatable truth in the original language and no one translation captures all the meaning, use several translations. 1. The Scriptures Inspired

23 Generally, choose a more literal translation or a translation that uses dynamic equivalence for study and devotional purposes; use a paraphrase for devotions only.Generally, choose a more literal translation or a translation that uses dynamic equivalence for study and devotional purposes; use a paraphrase for devotions only. In addition, follow the lead of your senior pastor to use the translation in the services that he or she prefers.In addition, follow the lead of your senior pastor to use the translation in the services that he or she prefers. 1. The Scriptures Inspired

24 As Christians we believe that God has revealed himself through His Word—that He has disclosed His names, will, purpose, and character.As Christians we believe that God has revealed himself through His Word—that He has disclosed His names, will, purpose, and character. But what about those who do not believe the Bible? How has God left evidence for humankind so that we might recognize His handiwork (Ro. 1:20)?But what about those who do not believe the Bible? How has God left evidence for humankind so that we might recognize His handiwork (Ro. 1:20)? Further, what has the Bible revealed about the nature of God? To these questions we now turn.Further, what has the Bible revealed about the nature of God? To these questions we now turn. 1. The Scriptures Inspired

25 How do we know that God exists? Let’s begin by briefly examining several arguments for the existence of God: The Cosmological Argument – states that God exists because “the beginning of the universe implies the existence of a First Cause” (Geivett 62) so great as to create the universe out of nothing.The Cosmological Argument – states that God exists because “the beginning of the universe implies the existence of a First Cause” (Geivett 62) so great as to create the universe out of nothing. 2. The One True God

26 The Design Argument – states that features of the natural world exhibit purpose and signal an intelligent cause (Dembski 77).The Design Argument – states that features of the natural world exhibit purpose and signal an intelligent cause (Dembski 77). The irreducible complexity in the smallest of organisms and the irreducibly complex information in the basic structures of life (e.g., the DNA) are the fingerprints of a Designer, not the product of random naturalism.The irreducible complexity in the smallest of organisms and the irreducibly complex information in the basic structures of life (e.g., the DNA) are the fingerprints of a Designer, not the product of random naturalism. 2. The One True God

27 “Someone who finds a watch in a field knows that it must have been made by an intelligent being, so why does the same not apply to the even more complex mechanisms which we find in nature?”“Someone who finds a watch in a field knows that it must have been made by an intelligent being, so why does the same not apply to the even more complex mechanisms which we find in nature?” “Is it more plausible to believe that the wonders of this world were created by a supreme intelligence or that they emerged accidentally?” (Bray 687).“Is it more plausible to believe that the wonders of this world were created by a supreme intelligence or that they emerged accidentally?” (Bray 687). 2. The One True God

28 The Moral Argument – states that since objective moral values exist, then God exists.The Moral Argument – states that since objective moral values exist, then God exists. “The stress of the moral argument is that if the claims of morality are absolute and universal, then there must be some absolute and all-encompassing basis and that is God” (Cook 448).“The stress of the moral argument is that if the claims of morality are absolute and universal, then there must be some absolute and all-encompassing basis and that is God” (Cook 448). 2. The One True God

29 Contrary to naturalistic evolution, it is very unlikely that personal values emerge from valuelessness.Contrary to naturalistic evolution, it is very unlikely that personal values emerge from valuelessness. “Morality is often in conflict with our instinctual drives, and we control and overcome them to do what is right” (Cook 447).“Morality is often in conflict with our instinctual drives, and we control and overcome them to do what is right” (Cook 447). We make free, personal choices based on objective moral values. A godless world “would entail an absence of objective moral values” (Copan 115).We make free, personal choices based on objective moral values. A godless world “would entail an absence of objective moral values” (Copan 115). “Without God, there would be no moral values, no moral obligations, no human rights, no human dignity” (Copan ).“Without God, there would be no moral values, no moral obligations, no human rights, no human dignity” (Copan ). 2. The One True God

30 We can surmise at this point that the “evidence of design, of moral responsibility, of beauty, of consciousness, of the human hankering for the Transcendent, of religious experience, of patterns in history, and so forth, all acquire a compelling cumulative force pointing to a fuller composite description of the Creator of the universe” (Geivett 75-76). 2. The One True God

31 Having reached the point of recognizing the reasonableness of a Supreme Being, we may now note one more (philosophical) argument that bolsters the rest: The Ontological Argument – states that “once we understand what God is—the greatest conceivable being or the most perfect being or the most real being—then we shall see that such a being must in fact exist” (Craig 125).The Ontological Argument – states that “once we understand what God is—the greatest conceivable being or the most perfect being or the most real being—then we shall see that such a being must in fact exist” (Craig 125). 2. The One True God

32 “The argument rests on the fact that all men have an awareness of God. Because the concept of God is universal, God must have placed the idea within man” (Enns 185).“The argument rests on the fact that all men have an awareness of God. Because the concept of God is universal, God must have placed the idea within man” (Enns 185). 2. The One True God

33 The Bible says this about our understanding of God: “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard. Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.”—Ps. 19:1-4“The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard. Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.”—Ps. 19: The One True God

34 “For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.” —Ro. 1:20“For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.” —Ro. 1:20 “The fool says in his heart, ‘There is no God.’”—Ps 14:1.“The fool says in his heart, ‘There is no God.’”—Ps 14:1. 2. The One True God

35 “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”—Ge. 1:1“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”—Ge. 1:1 “And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who earnestly seek him.”—He. 11:6“And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who earnestly seek him.”—He. 11:6 2. The One True God

36 The AG Statement of Fundamental Truths states: “The one true God has revealed himself as the eternally self-existent ‘I AM,’ the Creator of heaven and earth and the Redeemer of mankind.“The one true God has revealed himself as the eternally self-existent ‘I AM,’ the Creator of heaven and earth and the Redeemer of mankind. “He has further revealed himself as embodying the principles of relationship and association as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Deut. 6:4; Isa. 43:10, 11; Matt. 28:19; Luke 3:22).“He has further revealed himself as embodying the principles of relationship and association as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Deut. 6:4; Isa. 43:10, 11; Matt. 28:19; Luke 3:22). 2. The One True God

37 “The terms ‘trinity’ and ‘persons’ as related to the Godhead, are not found in the Scriptures.“The terms ‘trinity’ and ‘persons’ as related to the Godhead, are not found in the Scriptures. “However, we can speak with correctness of the Lord our God, who is One Lord, as a trinity or as one Being of three persons, and still be absolutely scriptural (e.g., Matt. 28:19; John 14:16-17; 2 Cor. 13:14).“However, we can speak with correctness of the Lord our God, who is One Lord, as a trinity or as one Being of three persons, and still be absolutely scriptural (e.g., Matt. 28:19; John 14:16-17; 2 Cor. 13:14). 2. The One True God

38 “Christ taught a distinction of Persons in the Godhead which He expressed in specific terms of relationship, as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, but that this distinction and relationship, as to its mode is inscrutable and incomprehensible, because unexplained (Matt. 11:25-27; 28:19; Luke 1:35; 1 Cor. 1:24; 2 Cor. 13:14, 1 John 1:3-4).”“Christ taught a distinction of Persons in the Godhead which He expressed in specific terms of relationship, as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, but that this distinction and relationship, as to its mode is inscrutable and incomprehensible, because unexplained (Matt. 11:25-27; 28:19; Luke 1:35; 1 Cor. 1:24; 2 Cor. 13:14, 1 John 1:3-4).” 2. The One True God

39 “Accordingly, therefore, there is that in the Son which constitutes Him the Son and not the Father; and there is that in the Holy Spirit which constitutes Him the Holy Spirit and not either the Father or the Son.“Accordingly, therefore, there is that in the Son which constitutes Him the Son and not the Father; and there is that in the Holy Spirit which constitutes Him the Holy Spirit and not either the Father or the Son. 2. The One True God

40 “Wherefore, the Father is the Begetter; the Son is the Begotten; and the Holy Spirit is the One proceeding from the Father and the Son.“Wherefore, the Father is the Begetter; the Son is the Begotten; and the Holy Spirit is the One proceeding from the Father and the Son. “Therefore, because these three Persons in the Godhead are in a state of unity, there is but one Lord God Almighty and His name one (Zech. 14:9; John 1:18; 15:26; 17:11, 21).“Therefore, because these three Persons in the Godhead are in a state of unity, there is but one Lord God Almighty and His name one (Zech. 14:9; John 1:18; 15:26; 17:11, 21). 2. The One True God

41 “The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are never identical as to Person; nor confused as to relation; nor divided in respect to the Godhead; nor opposed as to cooperation.“The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are never identical as to Person; nor confused as to relation; nor divided in respect to the Godhead; nor opposed as to cooperation. “The Son is in the Father and the Father is in the Son as to relationship. The Son is with the Father and the Father is with the Son, as to fellowship. The Father is not from the Son, but the Son is from the Father, as to authority.“The Son is in the Father and the Father is in the Son as to relationship. The Son is with the Father and the Father is with the Son, as to fellowship. The Father is not from the Son, but the Son is from the Father, as to authority. 2. The One True God

42 “The Holy Spirit is from the Father and the Son proceeding, as to nature, relationship, cooperation and authority.“The Holy Spirit is from the Father and the Son proceeding, as to nature, relationship, cooperation and authority. “Hence, neither Person in the Godhead either exists or works separately or independently of the others (cf. John 5:17- 30, 32, 37; 8:17-18).”“Hence, neither Person in the Godhead either exists or works separately or independently of the others (cf. John 5:17- 30, 32, 37; 8:17-18).” 2. The One True God

43 What else does the Bible reveal about God? The Bible discloses much about the nature of God. From His words and works we can determine His attributes. Here are just a few of the attributes of God. God is: 2. The One True God

44 Omnipotent – He is all-powerful. He can do anything He sets His heart to do.Omnipotent – He is all-powerful. He can do anything He sets His heart to do. Being omnipotent does not mean that God can do something against His nature, such as sin, or do logical impossibilities (or absurdities), such as create something bigger than Himself.Being omnipotent does not mean that God can do something against His nature, such as sin, or do logical impossibilities (or absurdities), such as create something bigger than Himself. 2. The One True God

45 Omnipresent – He is everywhere present (Ps. 139:7-12). “Although He transcends all spatial limitations, God is wholly present at every point in the universe simultaneously” (Barackman 52).Omnipresent – He is everywhere present (Ps. 139:7-12). “Although He transcends all spatial limitations, God is wholly present at every point in the universe simultaneously” (Barackman 52). This is not the same as pantheism, which essentially teaches that everything is God.This is not the same as pantheism, which essentially teaches that everything is God. 2. The One True God

46 Omniscient – He is all-knowing. God knows all things past, present, and future (Prov. 15:3; Is. 46:10; Acts 2:23; Ro. 8:28-29).Omniscient – He is all-knowing. God knows all things past, present, and future (Prov. 15:3; Is. 46:10; Acts 2:23; Ro. 8:28-29). God demonstrates His omniscience in Bible prophecy and typology. Through these He foretells future events.God demonstrates His omniscience in Bible prophecy and typology. Through these He foretells future events. For example, Isaiah 53 predicts the suffering and death of Jesus Christ (the Messiah).For example, Isaiah 53 predicts the suffering and death of Jesus Christ (the Messiah). 2. The One True God

47 Eternal – He is without beginning or end; He is infinite.Eternal – He is without beginning or end; He is infinite. “God is timeless, as His name ‘I AM’ suggests (Ex. 3:14)” (Barackman 52).“God is timeless, as His name ‘I AM’ suggests (Ex. 3:14)” (Barackman 52). Whereas Satan is the “god of this age” (2 Cor. 4:4), God is the “King of the ages” (Rev. 15:3). He is sovereign over all time.Whereas Satan is the “god of this age” (2 Cor. 4:4), God is the “King of the ages” (Rev. 15:3). He is sovereign over all time. 2. The One True God

48 Of these attributes already mentioned, the prophet Isaiah spoke, “Do you not know? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He will not grow tired or weary, and his understanding no one can fathom” (Is. 40:28).Of these attributes already mentioned, the prophet Isaiah spoke, “Do you not know? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He will not grow tired or weary, and his understanding no one can fathom” (Is. 40:28). 2. The One True God

49 Immutable – God does not change; He is forever the same (Ps. 102:27).Immutable – God does not change; He is forever the same (Ps. 102:27). “The first and fundamental difference between the Creator and his creatures is that they are mutable and their nature admits change, whereas God is immutable and can never cease to be what he is” (Packer 77). (See Nu. 23:19; 1 Sa. 15:29.)“The first and fundamental difference between the Creator and his creatures is that they are mutable and their nature admits change, whereas God is immutable and can never cease to be what he is” (Packer 77). (See Nu. 23:19; 1 Sa. 15:29.) 2. The One True God

50 God’s character, word, and purposes remain the same.God’s character, word, and purposes remain the same. “Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows.”—Ja. 1:17“Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows.”—Ja. 1:17 “Long ago I learned from your statutes that you established them to last forever.” —Ps 119:152. “Long ago I learned from your statutes that you established them to last forever.” —Ps 119: The One True God

51 Similarly, Jesus Christ does not change:Similarly, Jesus Christ does not change: “Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.”—Heb 13:8“Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.”—Heb 13:8 This truth, combined with the compassion of God, provides assurance that God continues to meet our needs in the same manner in which Christ did (e.g., healing and miracles remain today).This truth, combined with the compassion of God, provides assurance that God continues to meet our needs in the same manner in which Christ did (e.g., healing and miracles remain today). 2. The One True God

52 Holy – He is set apart from sin and anything that is sinful (Is. 57:15; 59:2). That is, God has “no personal relation to sin” (Barackman 54).Holy – He is set apart from sin and anything that is sinful (Is. 57:15; 59:2). That is, God has “no personal relation to sin” (Barackman 54). Further, God is in His nature Light, and therefore “in Him there is no darkness at all” (1 Jn. 1:5).Further, God is in His nature Light, and therefore “in Him there is no darkness at all” (1 Jn. 1:5). God also demands that we be holy because He is holy (Lev. 11:44-45; 1 Pt. 1:15-16).God also demands that we be holy because He is holy (Lev. 11:44-45; 1 Pt. 1:15-16). 2. The One True God

53 Since none of us can measure up to this standard of holiness, and since sin results in death (Ro. 5:12) and eternal separation from God (Jn. 3:36), then we need Someone who can meet this standard of holiness and die for us.Since none of us can measure up to this standard of holiness, and since sin results in death (Ro. 5:12) and eternal separation from God (Jn. 3:36), then we need Someone who can meet this standard of holiness and die for us. This leads us to the good news that Jesus Christ has become our perfect sacrifice, bringing us into relationship with God (Ro. 3:21-26).This leads us to the good news that Jesus Christ has become our perfect sacrifice, bringing us into relationship with God (Ro. 3:21-26). 2. The One True God

54 Just – God is fair and righteous in all He does.Just – God is fair and righteous in all He does. This means that Christ’s atonement satisfied the justice of the Father, and is given to all who will receive Him by faith (Jn. 1:12) on an equal basis (Ro. 3:21-30).This means that Christ’s atonement satisfied the justice of the Father, and is given to all who will receive Him by faith (Jn. 1:12) on an equal basis (Ro. 3:21-30). This also means that we must be fair and impartial in how we treat others (Ja. 2:2-9).This also means that we must be fair and impartial in how we treat others (Ja. 2:2-9). 2. The One True God

55 Love – God is Love (1 Jn. 4:8-10, 16). “This means more than that God is loving; it means that love is of the essence of his being” (Morris 136).Love – God is Love (1 Jn. 4:8-10, 16). “This means more than that God is loving; it means that love is of the essence of his being” (Morris 136). (Similarly, God is in His essence light [1 Jn. 1:5], spirit [Jn. 4:24], and consuming fire [He. 12:29].)(Similarly, God is in His essence light [1 Jn. 1:5], spirit [Jn. 4:24], and consuming fire [He. 12:29].) 2. The One True God

56 Since God is love, this means that all God’s activity springs from His love. For instance, “for whom God loves he disciplines” (He. 12:6). That we suffer consequences for our ungodliness proves his love. 2. The One True God

57 The Bible also clearly shows that God’s love is active and unmerited (Jn. 3:16): “This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins.”—1 Jn 4:10. God’s love for us exemplifies how we should love one another (1 Jn. 4:11). 2. The One True God

58 Loving and Loyal – God’s love is steadfast; it endures forever (Ps. 136:1ff; Is. 54:10; Ho. 10:12).Loving and Loyal – God’s love is steadfast; it endures forever (Ps. 136:1ff; Is. 54:10; Ho. 10:12). This idea is found in the important Hebrew word chesed, which means a deep, affectionate commitment to relationship, especially demonstrated through God’s covenant relationships with humankind.This idea is found in the important Hebrew word chesed, which means a deep, affectionate commitment to relationship, especially demonstrated through God’s covenant relationships with humankind. We can count on this love even in the midst of trial or calamity (Lam. 3:22; 31).We can count on this love even in the midst of trial or calamity (Lam. 3:22; 31). 2. The One True God

59 “Give ear and come to me; hear me, that your soul may live. I will make an everlasting covenant with you, my faithful love promised to David.”  Isaiah 55:3“Give ear and come to me; hear me, that your soul may live. I will make an everlasting covenant with you, my faithful love promised to David.”  Isaiah 55:3 “‘Though the mountains be shaken and the hills be removed, yet my unfailing love for you will not be shaken nor my covenant of peace be removed,’ says the LORD, who has compassion on you.”  Isaiah 54:10“‘Though the mountains be shaken and the hills be removed, yet my unfailing love for you will not be shaken nor my covenant of peace be removed,’ says the LORD, who has compassion on you.”  Isaiah 54:10 2. The One True God

60 Loving and Wrathful – God is both a God of love and of wrath (1 Jn. 4:8; Ro. 1:18).Loving and Wrathful – God is both a God of love and of wrath (1 Jn. 4:8; Ro. 1:18). In God, love and wrath are necessary corollaries.In God, love and wrath are necessary corollaries. God brings judgment on all who do evil because He is holy and just, and because He defends the children He loves.God brings judgment on all who do evil because He is holy and just, and because He defends the children He loves. 2. The One True God

61 This judgment is necessary because it turns his people from sin and because it brings them deliverance from sin and from those who do evil against them.This judgment is necessary because it turns his people from sin and because it brings them deliverance from sin and from those who do evil against them. “The love of God that ceaselessly works to save sinners is ruthlessly active to destroy evil from the world he loves…It is so terrible because it is the other side of his love, and it is as great as his love” (Schofield 53f).“The love of God that ceaselessly works to save sinners is ruthlessly active to destroy evil from the world he loves…It is so terrible because it is the other side of his love, and it is as great as his love” (Schofield 53f). 2. The One True God

62 The names of God reveal much about His Person. The following are several important names of God: The Hebrew word transliterated Yahweh (YHVH) or Jehovah – the covenant, personal name of God, translated “L ORD.”The Hebrew word transliterated Yahweh (YHVH) or Jehovah – the covenant, personal name of God, translated “L ORD.” This name “is likely related to the verb ‘to be.’ Thus in Exodus 3:14-15 the Lord declares, ‘I AM WHO I AM…This is my name forever’” (Enns 198).This name “is likely related to the verb ‘to be.’ Thus in Exodus 3:14-15 the Lord declares, ‘I AM WHO I AM…This is my name forever’” (Enns 198). This name points to God’s eternal and immutable (changeless) nature.This name points to God’s eternal and immutable (changeless) nature. 2. The One True God

63 The Hebrew words El (singular) or Elohim (plural) – the generic names for “God.”The Hebrew words El (singular) or Elohim (plural) – the generic names for “God.” These words derive their meaning from “power” (cf. Prov. 3:27), thus they mean the Mighty One or All Powerful One.These words derive their meaning from “power” (cf. Prov. 3:27), thus they mean the Mighty One or All Powerful One. As Trinitarians we hold that elohim “is a numerical plural, indicating the plurality of Persons within the divine Trinity, or Godhead” (Barackman 66).As Trinitarians we hold that elohim “is a numerical plural, indicating the plurality of Persons within the divine Trinity, or Godhead” (Barackman 66). 2. The One True God

64 The Hebrew word Adonai – means “lord” or “master.”The Hebrew word Adonai – means “lord” or “master.” The Greek word “kurios” – is a title that means “lord.”The Greek word “kurios” – is a title that means “lord.” The Greek word “theos” – is the generic word for “god” or “God,” depending on the context.The Greek word “theos” – is the generic word for “god” or “God,” depending on the context. There are many other wonderful names of God, each revealing important aspects of His nature.There are many other wonderful names of God, each revealing important aspects of His nature. 2. The One True God

65 There are also many compound names of God:There are also many compound names of God: For example, Jehovah-shalom means “the Lord our peace” (Judges 6:23), Jehovah-rapha means “the Lord who heals” (Ex. 15:26), and Jehovah- tsidkenu means “the Lord our righteousness” (Jer. 23:6).For example, Jehovah-shalom means “the Lord our peace” (Judges 6:23), Jehovah-rapha means “the Lord who heals” (Ex. 15:26), and Jehovah- tsidkenu means “the Lord our righteousness” (Jer. 23:6). In many cases, God revealed a compound name to meet a specific need among His people.In many cases, God revealed a compound name to meet a specific need among His people. For instance, God revealed His name Jehovah- shalom during a time when there was no peace for the nation of Israel.For instance, God revealed His name Jehovah- shalom during a time when there was no peace for the nation of Israel. 2. The One True God

66 We have seen that the Bible teaches that the Godhead consists of three coeternal and coexistent Persons who are distinguishable, but inseparable.We have seen that the Bible teaches that the Godhead consists of three coeternal and coexistent Persons who are distinguishable, but inseparable. However, there are three common erroneous views about God that we should briefly discuss.However, there are three common erroneous views about God that we should briefly discuss. These are Modalism, Arianism, and Tritheism.These are Modalism, Arianism, and Tritheism. 2. The One True God

67 Modalism (also called Monarchianism or Sabellianism) – The belief that God is one Person who appears in different modes, sometimes as the Father, Son, or Holy Spirit.Modalism (also called Monarchianism or Sabellianism) – The belief that God is one Person who appears in different modes, sometimes as the Father, Son, or Holy Spirit. This aberrant view stresses the unity of the Persons of the Godhead at the expense of their distinctiveness.This aberrant view stresses the unity of the Persons of the Godhead at the expense of their distinctiveness. 2. The One True God

68 In doing so, modalists believe that God’s one, real nature is masked by the three manifestations of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.In doing so, modalists believe that God’s one, real nature is masked by the three manifestations of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. “But what does this do to all the apparent personal interaction that occurs between the Father and the Son throughout the Gospels?” (Boyd 180).“But what does this do to all the apparent personal interaction that occurs between the Father and the Son throughout the Gospels?” (Boyd 180). 2. The One True God

69 Further, it “completely undermines the genuiness of the Father’s personal love for the Son and the Son’s personal love for the Father…” (Boyd 183).Further, it “completely undermines the genuiness of the Father’s personal love for the Son and the Son’s personal love for the Father…” (Boyd 183). We can only conclude that in modalism such interaction is ingenuine.We can only conclude that in modalism such interaction is ingenuine. Further, rather than recognizing two distinct Persons on the throne, modalists see an “illusion of separation” between “God on the throne and the Lamb next to the throne in Revelation 4 and 5” (Boyd 182).Further, rather than recognizing two distinct Persons on the throne, modalists see an “illusion of separation” between “God on the throne and the Lamb next to the throne in Revelation 4 and 5” (Boyd 182). 2. The One True God

70 In addition, how “can Jesus be both the Sender and the Sent; the One who prays and the One to whom the prayer is directed; the sacrifice and the One to whom the sacrifice is given?” (Morey 537).In addition, how “can Jesus be both the Sender and the Sent; the One who prays and the One to whom the prayer is directed; the sacrifice and the One to whom the sacrifice is given?” (Morey 537). Is all of this personal and distinct activity merely an “illusion”? Was the one God behind these masks simply loving Himself?Is all of this personal and distinct activity merely an “illusion”? Was the one God behind these masks simply loving Himself? 2. The One True God

71 “A modern form of this heresy erupted in Pentecostal circles about 1915, assuming the epithet of ‘Jesus Only,’ or ‘Oneness’” (Horton 55).“A modern form of this heresy erupted in Pentecostal circles about 1915, assuming the epithet of ‘Jesus Only,’ or ‘Oneness’” (Horton 55). The members of this movement were given this name because they harmonized Matthew 28:19 with Acts 2:38 and baptized in the name of Jesus only.The members of this movement were given this name because they harmonized Matthew 28:19 with Acts 2:38 and baptized in the name of Jesus only. The “name ‘Jesus’ was interpreted to be the singularly revealed name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit” (Reed 147).The “name ‘Jesus’ was interpreted to be the singularly revealed name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit” (Reed 147). 2. The One True God

72 Stanley Horton (55-56) explains:Stanley Horton (55-56) explains: “It should be noted also that in Matt. 28:19 the command was literally to baptize them ‘into the name,’ which was their way of saying into the worship and service of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.”“It should be noted also that in Matt. 28:19 the command was literally to baptize them ‘into the name,’ which was their way of saying into the worship and service of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.” “In Acts 2:38, however, a different form is used in the Gk. and means ‘upon the Name of Jesus,’ which was their way of saying ‘upon the authority of Jesus,’ an authority expressed in Matt. 28:19.”“In Acts 2:38, however, a different form is used in the Gk. and means ‘upon the Name of Jesus,’ which was their way of saying ‘upon the authority of Jesus,’ an authority expressed in Matt. 28:19.” 2. The One True God

73 Arianism – The heretical belief that Jesus Christ did not exist from all eternity, and is therefore a created being.Arianism – The heretical belief that Jesus Christ did not exist from all eternity, and is therefore a created being. However, if Christ is not deity, then we are not really united to God.However, if Christ is not deity, then we are not really united to God. Further, our sins are still unremitted, since only a sinless, holy God can die for our sins (cf. Acts 20:28; Ro. 8:20).Further, our sins are still unremitted, since only a sinless, holy God can die for our sins (cf. Acts 20:28; Ro. 8:20). 2. The One True God

74 Although we will examine the deity of Christ in detail in Part 2, we should note here that Jesus is clearly called God in a number of passages (e.g. Jn. 1:1-3; Ro. 9:5; He. 1:8, etc.).Although we will examine the deity of Christ in detail in Part 2, we should note here that Jesus is clearly called God in a number of passages (e.g. Jn. 1:1-3; Ro. 9:5; He. 1:8, etc.). The heresy of Arianism was overwhelmingly rejected at the Council of Nicea in A.D. 325.The heresy of Arianism was overwhelmingly rejected at the Council of Nicea in A.D The Jehovah’s Witnesses (or Watchtower Society) are a modern Arian cult.The Jehovah’s Witnesses (or Watchtower Society) are a modern Arian cult. 2. The One True God

75 Tritheism – The belief that the three Persons of the Godhead have separate natures or divided essence, thus resulting in three Gods.Tritheism – The belief that the three Persons of the Godhead have separate natures or divided essence, thus resulting in three Gods. This ignores the very important truth that we worship one God (Deut. 6:4; the Hebrew word for “one” is “echad” which means a compound unity).This ignores the very important truth that we worship one God (Deut. 6:4; the Hebrew word for “one” is “echad” which means a compound unity). 2. The One True God

76 The terminology of the Trinity reached the height of clarity in the Athanasian Creed of the Fifth Century.The terminology of the Trinity reached the height of clarity in the Athanasian Creed of the Fifth Century. This creed explained that “we worship One God in Trinity and Trinity in Unity, neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the substance.”This creed explained that “we worship One God in Trinity and Trinity in Unity, neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the substance.” Thus the Church Fathers explained that God is distinguishable as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, but inseparable—perfectly united in Divine Substance.Thus the Church Fathers explained that God is distinguishable as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, but inseparable—perfectly united in Divine Substance. 2. The One True God

77 Barackman, Floyd. Practical Christian Theology: Examining the Great Doctrines of the Faith. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications 1998.Barackman, Floyd. Practical Christian Theology: Examining the Great Doctrines of the Faith. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications Boyd, Gregory. Oneness Pentecostals and the Trinity. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.Boyd, Gregory. Oneness Pentecostals and the Trinity. Grand Rapids: Baker, Buchanan, Mark. The Holy Wild: Trusting in the Character of God. Sisters: Multnomah, 2003.Buchanan, Mark. The Holy Wild: Trusting in the Character of God. Sisters: Multnomah, Cook, E. D. “Moral Argument for God.” New Dictionary of Christian Apologetics. Eds. W. C. Campbell-Jack and Gavin McGrath. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Cook, E. D. “Moral Argument for God.” New Dictionary of Christian Apologetics. Eds. W. C. Campbell-Jack and Gavin McGrath. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Copan, Paul. “A Moral Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Copan, Paul. “A Moral Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Craig, William Lane. “The Ontological Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Craig, William Lane. “The Ontological Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Works Cited

78 Dembski, William. “An Information-Theoretic Design Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Dembski, William. “An Information-Theoretic Design Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Edgar, Brian. The Message of the Trinity. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2004.Edgar, Brian. The Message of the Trinity. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Chicago: Moody Press 1989.Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Chicago: Moody Press Geivett, Douglas. “The Kalam Cosmological Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Geivett, Douglas. “The Kalam Cosmological Argument.” To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Eds. Francis Beckwith, William Craig, J. P. Moreland. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press Glassman, Eugene. The Translation Debate. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 109.Glassman, Eugene. The Translation Debate. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 109. Works Cited

79 Gross, Edward, editor. Charles Hodge: Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.Gross, Edward, editor. Charles Hodge: Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker, Lewis, C. S. God in the Dock, “Christian Apologetics.” Cited in Wayne Martindale and Jerry Root, editors, The Quotable Lewis: An Encyclopedic Selection of Quotes from the Complete Published Works of C. S. Lewis. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1989.Lewis, C. S. God in the Dock, “Christian Apologetics.” Cited in Wayne Martindale and Jerry Root, editors, The Quotable Lewis: An Encyclopedic Selection of Quotes from the Complete Published Works of C. S. Lewis. Wheaton: Tyndale House, ___________. Mere Christianity. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1980.___________. Mere Christianity. San Francisco: Harper Collins, Menzies, William and Stanley Horton. Bible Doctrines: A Pentecostal Perspective. Springfield: Logion Press 1993.Menzies, William and Stanley Horton. Bible Doctrines: A Pentecostal Perspective. Springfield: Logion Press Works Cited

80 Morey, Robert. The Trinity: Evidence and Issues. Iowa Falls: World Bible Publishers 1996.Morey, Robert. The Trinity: Evidence and Issues. Iowa Falls: World Bible Publishers Morris, Leon. Testaments of Love. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1981.Morris, Leon. Testaments of Love. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., Packer, J. I. Knowing God. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1973.Packer, J. I. Knowing God. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, Pinnock, Clark. Biblical Revelation—The Foundation of Christian Theology. Chicago: Moody Press 1971.Pinnock, Clark. Biblical Revelation—The Foundation of Christian Theology. Chicago: Moody Press Randal, Lewis. Boettner’s Reformed Doctrine of Predestination: An Examination. Bibliotheca Sacra, Volume 92 (Dallas Theological Seminary, 1935).Randal, Lewis. Boettner’s Reformed Doctrine of Predestination: An Examination. Bibliotheca Sacra, Volume 92 (Dallas Theological Seminary, 1935). Reed, David. “Aspects of the Origins of Oneness Pentecostalism.” Aspects of Pentecostal-Charismatic Origins. Ed. Vinson Synan. Plainfield: Logos International Reed, David. “Aspects of the Origins of Oneness Pentecostalism.” Aspects of Pentecostal-Charismatic Origins. Ed. Vinson Synan. Plainfield: Logos International Works Cited

81 Schaff, Philip and David Schley Schaff. History of the Christian Church. Oak Harbor, Washington: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.Schaff, Philip and David Schley Schaff. History of the Christian Church. Oak Harbor, Washington: Logos Research Systems, Inc., Schofield, J. N. Introducing Old Testament Theology. Cited in Leon Morris. Testaments of Love. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1981, 82.Schofield, J. N. Introducing Old Testament Theology. Cited in Leon Morris. Testaments of Love. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1981, 82. Strobel, Lee. The Case For Faith. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000.Strobel, Lee. The Case For Faith. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, Swindoll, Charles. The Tale of the Tardy Oxcart. Nashville: Word Publishing, 1998.Swindoll, Charles. The Tale of the Tardy Oxcart. Nashville: Word Publishing, Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Holy. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, Cited in Libronix Digital Library.Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Holy. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, Cited in Libronix Digital Library. Works Cited


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