Presentation on theme: "Welcome to House of Israel’s Shabbat Service Thank you for joining us."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome to House of Israel’s Shabbat Service Thank you for joining us.
Call No Man Rabbi Is It Okay for a Messianic Leader to Take on the Title of Rabbi?
Zechariah 8 20 This is what Yehovah Almighty says: "Many peoples and the inhabitants of many cities will yet come, 21 and the inhabitants of one city will go to another and say, 'Let us go at once to entreat Yehovah and seek Yehovah Almighty. I myself am going.' 22 And many peoples and powerful nations will come to Yerushalayim to seek Yehovah Almighty and to entreat him." 23 This is what Yehovah Almighty says: "In those days ten men from all languages and nations will take firm hold of one Yehudi by the hem of his robe and say, 'Let us go with you, because we have heard that Elohim is with you.'"
Matthew 23:1-12 (KJV) 1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, 2 Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: 3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. 4 For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers. 5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,
Matthew 23:1-12 6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, 7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. 8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. 9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven. 10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. 11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.
So, why are there so many self designated Rabbis in the Messianic and Jewish Roots Movements? Jewish and even some non- Jewish congregational leaders in Messianic assemblies still hold onto the title of Rabbi. If Yeshua strictly commanded his followers not to be called Rabbi, then why do so many leaders who claim faith in Yeshua still hold this title?
*What are Scribes, Pharisees and Rabbis? *What Is the Seat of Mosheh? *The Authority of the Rabbis *What’s Wrong With Being Called Rabbi? *What’s Wrong With Being Called Father? *What’s Wrong With Being Called Teacher? *On Being a Servant and Being Humble
Then Yeshua said to the crowds and to his disciples: “The teachers of the law and the Pharisees sit in Mosheh's seat.”
Who are the Teachers of the Law? Greek grammateu,j (grammatoos) - (1) one skilled in Jewish law and theology scribe, expert, scholar (MT 2.4); (2) as a town official secretary, town clerk (AC 19.35) one who has special functions in connection with documents.
1.chief executive officer of a governmental entity, secretary (of state), clerk, title of a high official in Ephesus 2. an expert in matters relating to divine revelation, a.specialists in the law of Moses: experts in the law, scholars versed in the law, scribes; b. interpreter of teaching connected with the ministry of Jesus, ext. of 2a scribe, instructor
gra,mma (gramma) 1.a unit of an alphabet, in our lit. only of a Greek character: letter 2. a set of written characters forming a document or piece of writing, a document, piece of writing
46 If you believed Mosheh, you would believe me, for he wrote about me. 47 But since you do not believe what he wrote (literally, “his letters”), how are you going to believe what I say?“ (4 th Gospel 5) See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand! (Galatians 6:11)
And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, having never learned? (4 th Gospel 7:15) manqa,nw (manthano – This is the verb form of the word for disciple) learn; find out, discover; learn by experience; attend a rabbinic school
Mirriam\Webster : a member of a learned class in ancient Israel through New Testament times studying the Scriptures and serving as copyists, editors, teachers, and jurists a : an official or public secretary or clerk b : a copier of manuscripts : writer; specifically : journalist
Who are the Pharisees? Farisai/oj, (Farisai-os) - Hebr. ~yviWrP.h;= (Prushim) Aram. aY"v;yriP., (Perishayah) The Semitic words mean ‘the separated ones, separatists’. Rulers of the synagogues
Who are the Pharisees? According to Josephus… Pharisees, the organized followers of the experts in interpreting the scriptures (scribes). It was the purpose of the Pharisees to take the pattern of a pious Israelite as established by the scribes, and to put it into practice as nearly as possible.
Understanding Phariseeism 1 Believe in Two Torahs 2 Have absolute authority to interpret Scripture 3 Random, irrational interpretation 4 Traditions take precedence over Scripture 5 Enact new, man-made laws
1 Believe in Two Torahs “Our Rabbis taught: An incident with a certain gentile that came before Shammai. He said to him: How many Torahs do you have? (Shammai) answered: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah (Babylonian Talmud, Sabbath 31a)
The Talmud explains that the Oral Torah was revealed to Mosheh in a second revelation at Mt. Sinai. It was not written down in order to keep it out of the hands of the Gentiles. It was given exclusively to the Rabbis as secret knowledge. The Mishnah was written around 200 CE
2 Have absolute authority to interpret Scripture Even if they instruct you that right is left and left is right you must obey them (Sifre Deuteronomy #154 on Deut 17:11)
Devarim 17 9 Go to the priests, who are Levites, and to the judge who is in office at that time. Inquire of them and they will give you the verdict. 10 You must act according to the decisions they give you at the place Yehovah will choose. Be careful to do everything they direct you to do. 11 Act according to the law they teach you and the decisions they give you. Do not turn aside from what they tell you, to the right or to the left.
Devarim 30:11-12 Now what I am commanding you today is not too difficult for you or beyond your reach. It is not up in heaven, so that you have to ask, "Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?" Now what I am commanding you today is not too difficult for you or beyond your reach. It is not up in heaven, so that you have to ask, "Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?"
Definition: Rabban - a title traditionally given to the head of the Sanhedrin during Tannaitic times (10-220 CE) Rabbi – any of the “Great Ones” among the leaders and teachers of the Torah
The Talmudic account of the dispute between Rabban Gamaliel II and Rabbi Joshua. These rabbis disagreed about when Yom Kippur was to occur in a certain year. But Rabban Gamaliel sat on the Rabbinic court. So, Rabbi Joshua was compelled to accept Rabban Gamaliel’s ruling even though he knew it to be factually untrue.
Rabbi Dosa reasoned with Rabbi Joshua that he must give in to Gamaliel’s ruling because… “If we go and challenge Rabban Gamaliel’s court, we must also challenge each and every court that has presided since the days of Moses until now… each and every set of three that preside as a court over Israel are equivalent to the court of Moses” (Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashannah 25a)
3 Random, irrational interpretation The Torah was read to all Israel. Very difficult to copy. The average person could understand it. We can understand it when we fill in the cultural and linguistic gaps.
Exodus 23:2 You shall not go after the majority to do evil, neither shall you testify in a matter of strife to incline after the majority to pervert justice Torn out of context (does this sound familiar?) – “creative” – “sound bites”
4 Traditions take precedence over Scripture A custom of Israel is Torah Minhag – Any custom practiced for an extended period of time becomes binding upon all Israel Ex: kippah – a man may not walk four cubits without his head covered nor make a blessing uncovered
5 Enact new, man-made laws Takanah (pl takanot) – invented Rabbinic laws, enactments, reforms Ex: Washing the hands before eating “Blessed art thou Lord, king of the universe, who has sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us to wash the hands.”
Matthew 23:1-2 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, 2 Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat:
What is Moses’ Seat? Mosheh's seat may refer to the chair found in many synagogues that represents the place of authority which a leader would sit in to pronounce decisions which carry the weight of authority of Mosheh himself. Or Mosheh's seat may refer in general to a Rabbi who teaches with the authority of Mosheh. Both interpretations suggest that such a teacher is speaking with the authority of Mosheh.
The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. (Matthew 23:2- 3 KJV) The typical interpretation of this saying of Jesus suggests that Jesus is telling his disciples to obey the Pharisees in everything they teach, but not to follow their example because they do not do what they tell others to do.
What’s the Problem Here? If Yeshua is telling his disciples to obey everything the Pharisees tell them, then he should be observing their traditions since that is what they teach
Yeshua’s confrontation with the religious leaders over the conflict between the commands of Yehovah and their traditions Matthew 15 Then some Pharisees and teachers of the law came to Yeshua from Yerushalayim and asked, 2 "Why do your disciples break the tradition (takanah) of the elders? They don't wash their hands before they eat!”
3 Yeshua replied, "And why do you break the command of Elohim for the sake of your tradition? 4 For Elohim said, 'Honor your father and mother' and 'Anyone who curses his father or mother must be put to death.' 5 But you say that if a man says to his father or mother, 'Whatever help you might otherwise have received from me is a gift devoted to Elohim,' 6 he is not to 'honor his father 'with it. Thus you nullify the word of Elohim for the sake of your tradition.
7 You hypocrites! Yeshayahu was right when he prophesied about you: 8 "'These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. 9 They worship me in vain; their teachings are but rules taught by men.'“ Isaiah says, “learned commandments of men”
The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. (Matt 23:2-3)
Shem Tov Hebrew Matthew George Howard 14 th cent Spanish Jew Shem-Tov Ibn Shaprut His polemic Even Bochan (“Test Stone”) “So everything he (Moses) says to you, diligently do. But according to their reforms (takanot) and their precedents (ma’asim) do not do, for they speak but do not do.”
They speak but do not do (Matthew 23:3) They do not do WHAT? They do not do according to the Torah of Yehovah
33 They feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence. 2 Kings 17:34 1 Unto this day they do after the former manners: 2 they fear not the LORD, neither do they (do) 3 after their statutes, or after their ordinances, or 4 after the law and commandment which the LORD commanded the children of Jacob, whom he named Israel; Read 1,3 then 2,4
The Problem With the Pharisees They tie up heavy loads and put them on men's shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to lift a finger to move them. Everything they do is done for men to see: They make their phylacteries wide and the tassels on their garments long; they love the place of honor at banquets and the most important seats in the synagogues; they love to be greeted in the marketplaces and to have men call them 'Rabbi.‘ (Matthew 23:4-7)
Heavy Loads “A person must first put on his right shoe, but not tie it. Then he must put on his left shoe and tie it and go back and tie his right shoe” (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 2:4)
Everything is a Show Everything they do is done for men to see: They make their phylacteries wide and the tassels on their garments long; they love the place of honor at banquets and the most important seats in the synagogues; they love to be greeted in the marketplaces and to have men call them 'Rabbi.'
Being Called Rabbi They love to be greeted in the marketplaces and to have men call them 'Rabbi.' But you are not to be called 'Rabbi,' for you have only one Master and you are all brothers.
What Is a Rabbi? Usually translated “Master” Is a Rabbi a teacher? Used only of Yeshua in Gospels and here in Matthew 23 where Yeshua tells us not to be called Rabbi Hebrew, rav, “great one”
Why We Should Not Be Called Rabbi Rabbi means “great one” – a term of self- exaltation Yeshua said not to be called Rabbi The Rabbis in Judaism exalt their own law over the written laws of Yehovah The Rabbis hate Yeshua
Is Paul to be called “Rabbi” Messianics refer to him as “Rav Sha’ul” (Am I nit-picking?) Yet, nowhere in all his writings does he refer to himself with this title
Paul’s Opinion of Phariseeism (Philippians 3) 2 Watch out for those dogs, those men who do evil, those mutilators of the flesh. 3 For it is we who are the circumcision, we who worship by the Spirit of Elohim, who glory in Messiah Yeshua, and who put no confidence in the flesh-- 4 though I myself have reasons for such confidence. If anyone else thinks he has reasons to put confidence in the flesh, I have more: 5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Yisrael, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; in regard to the law, a Pharisee;
Paul’s Opinion of Phariseeism (Philippians 3) 6 as for zeal, persecuting the assembly; as for legalistic righteousness, faultless. 7 But whatever was to my profit I now consider loss for the sake of Messiah. 8 What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Messiah Yeshua my master, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Messiah 9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which is through faith in Messiah-- the righteousness that comes from Elohim and is by faith.
Calling Men on Earth “Father” And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven. (Matthew 23:9) What aspect of fatherhood is Yeshua talking about? We have earthly fathers who have authority Yeshua is talking about appointing spiritual fathers who have authority over you
Does Paul Promote Being Called “Father”? You will not find Paul referred to anywhere in the New Testament as “Father” Even though you have ten thousand guardians in Messiah, you do not have many fathers, for in Messiah Yeshua I became your father through the gospel. (1 Corinthians 4:15)
Roman Catholicism has their “Father” The Pope, or “Papa”, which means daddy or Father. He sits on a seat of authority and makes law for Catholics. He speaks “ex cathedra” which means “from the chair” – the place of authority
In connection with papal infallibility, the Latin phrase ex cathedra (literally, "from the chair") has been defined as meaning "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, (the Bishop of Rome) defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church
Being Called Teacher Nor are you to be called “Teacher,” for you have one Teacher, the Messiah. (Matthew 23:10) Greek kaqhghth,j (kath-ay-gay-tays) - guide, leader; in the NT teacher, instructor kaqhghth,j (derivative of kaqhge,omai 'to guide, to explain,' not occurring in the NT) one who provides instruction and guidance - 'teacher, instructor.'
Breaking it down… Kath-ay-gay-tays From kath – root word for seat, chair, to sit And ago – to lead This rare word literally means one who leads/ guides from a chair – “seated guide”
Yeshua is coming full circle on his teaching He said that the Pharisees sit in Moses seat of authority, but misuse that authority Now he says not to be one of those who place themselves in a seat of absolute authority, because Messiah is the only one who legitimately has that kind of authority
What Kind of Authority Do the Followers of Yeshua Have? The Torah is our authority Right-rulings are for judging and decisions Matt 18 – see my teaching on “The Judgments of the Torah”
A Servant's Attitude and Humility The greatest among you will be your servant. For whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.“ (Matthew 23:11-12) Philippians 2:2-11