Presentation on theme: "Reformation & Religious Wars 1500-1600 Chapter 14 - Condition of the Church/Birth of Protestant."— Presentation transcript:
Reformation & Religious Wars 1500-1600 Chapter 14 - Condition of the Church/Birth of Protestant
AP Tip Almost every AP exam includes an essay question on the Reformation or the Counter-Reformation. While sometimes those questions deal primarily with religious issues, more often they deal with social, economic or political factor.
Key Concepts Martin Luther Wyclif’s ideas from 2 centuries earlier Publically challenged practices & theories of the Catholic Church 95 Theses – 1517 Protected by several German princes Escaped persecution Launched a new church Based on sola Scriptura – only by Scripture Justification by faith alone Priesthood of all believers Luther’s reformed church Stimualted other reformers John Calvin Predestination Support 1 st in Geneva England Holland Henry VIII – estab. The Church of England Independent from Rome Mostly for political reason
Key Concepts Luther’s reformed church Stimulated other reformers John Calvin Predestination Support 1 st in Geneva England Holland Henry VIII – estab. The Church of England Independent from Rome Mostly for political reason
Key Concepts The Catholic Church Removed some of the abuses that cost it support At the same time it went on the offensive – theologically Confirmation of the key elements of the Catholic faith Seven sacraments New religious order to combat Protestantism Jesuit order – most successful in Eur. & abroad Religious Tension throughout Eur. Civil war France – Catholicism wins Protestants tolerated – Edict of Nants – 1598 Spain - Religious issues were a major factor in the revolt of the Dutch provinces against Phillip II
The Christian Church - early 16 th C Legacy of The Babylonian Captivity & the Great Schism Christian humanists called for reform and the end of corrupt practices Simony – buying/selling of church offices Absenteeism – holding office but living somewhere else Pluralism – holding more than one office Anticlericalism – opposition to clergy was widespread For ignorance, immorality, privileges Concubines Drunkeness Gambling Only minimally literate
The Christian Church - early 16 th C Martin Luther Monk Studies led him to challenge the Catholic notion of the importance of good works necessary for salvation Attending church Taking communions Salvation comes from faith, from faith comes good works & charitable acts. God’s word is revealed only thru the Scriptures
The Christian Church - early 16 th C Indulgences Dominican monk Johann Tezel sold indulgence to pay for St Peter’s Authorized by Pope Leo the archbishop who was in debt could keep a portion of the proceeds Forgiveness for sins Longstanding tradition Granted to crusaders Sold to the public Tetzel was an accomplished salesman 95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences Door of the court church at Wittenburg 10/31/1517 Challenged the whole concept of indulgences Spread quickly 2 years later Luther denied the legitimacy of papal authority/church councils Threatened with excommunication Diet of Worms (assembly of the estates of the empire) To force Luther into obedience Luther refused to withdraw his views – bound to Scriptures
AP Tip Modern Catholicism is quite different from the Catholicism that was practiced in Luther’s time, and many Christian students do not know the theological details of the churches to which their families belong. Be sure you understand what the theological disputes where all about. While the details varied, the basic disagreement was over the relationship of man and God and th3e role the organized church plays in man’s salvation.
Protestant Thought Luther’s follower called Protestants Ulrich Zwingli Swiss Erasmian humanist Protestant thinker Sola Scriptura Attacked indulgences, monasticism, clerical celibacy & the Mass Luther & Zwingli argued that faith determined salvation Not faith and good works Individuals interpret the Bible Only 2 sacraments are legitimate Baptism Holy Communion – Eucharist The church is a community all Christians Not a hierarchical institution with the Pope as its head All are equal in status Luther & Zwingli disagreed about the Eucharist Catholics believed in the doctrine of transubstantiation Transformation of wine/wafer to blood/body of Christ Luther believed that Christ’s presence is Real, it is not physical Zwingli argued that the Eucharist was only a memorial Eucharist was a divisive issue among Protestants.
AP Tip The doctrine of transubstantiation asserts that a miracle occurs each time the Mass is performed. It is so that they can perform this miracle that priests must be pure in thought and deed, and therefore cannot marry or live ordinary lives. When the Protestants renounced this doctrine, they removed the distinctive function of Catholic priests. All Protestant clergy can marry and have children, and except in the Anglican version, are called ministers, not priests.
Art of the Reformantion Artists served both Catholics and Protestants Lucas Cranach the Elder – close friend of Luther Painted a number of Old Testament scenes Protestants embraced the Hebrew Bible & the New Testament Vasari Painted the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre for the pope Catholics & Protestants disagreed about the function of art Catholics felt the likenesses of Christ, saints & Mary promoted piety & veneration Developed the Baroque form of art Dramatic & emotional intense Protestants – 2 nd commandment forbade graven images Zwingli believed art & music were unnecessary & interfered with faith Luther felt art spread the message of faith He composed a number of hymns John Calvin – Protestant theologian Start simplicity in churches – empty of decoration,, forbid dance and theatre
Appeal of Protestant Ideas Spread of Luther’s ideas Printed broadsides vicious caricatures of the pope & indulgences Theological texts Luther’s translation of the Bible into German Preaching Two catechisms Helped people learn and remember Protestant doctrine Appeal to many Humanists & educated people Had been calling for reform Priests & monks Nuns Women Improved status Marriage the true Christian life Urban dwellers & peasants Status raised – doctrine of priesthood of all believers City governments Protestant leader worked closely with gov Able to tax Protestant clergy
Radical Reformation Lutherans created a national church Ruler held authority over the church except in matters of faith Radicals wanted greater breaks with the past Estab. Voluntary communities of believers Antibaptists rejected infant baptism Others argued for literal interpretation of the Bible Quakers in 17 th C Britain Pacifists – refused to swear oaths Some argued for communal ownership of property Congregationalists insisted on democratic organization Radicals were persecuted by Protestants & Catholics Shared an opposition to the separation of church and state They saw as a secularizing society
AP Tip All revolutions, it seems, prompt small extremist groups. Most of the Protestant radicals were persecuted or even killed, but some group like the Quakers in England and the Mennonites of the Amis in Czech Moravia found a haven in the American colonies, particularly New England and Pennsylvania