Presentation on theme: "Johannes Kepler and KEPLER’S FIRST LAW Laws of Planetary Motion ORBITAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS * Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (in New Astronomy, 1609)"— Presentation transcript:
Johannes Kepler and KEPLER’S FIRST LAW Laws of Planetary Motion ORBITAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS * Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (in New Astronomy, 1609) are scientific laws describing ORBITAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS (created to describe the motion of planets around the Sun) The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci "The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci." First Law THE PLANETARY ORBITS ARE ELLIPTICAL AND THE SUN IS AT THE END OF THE ELLIPSE, NOT AT THE CENTER * Kepler’s First Law stated that “THE PLANETARY ORBITS ARE ELLIPTICAL AND THE SUN IS AT THE END OF THE ELLIPSE, NOT AT THE CENTER…” GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN & ASTRONOMER
Galileo Galilei and THE STARRY MESSENGER UNIVERSE WHAT WERE PLANETS MADE OF & HOW IS MOTION IN THE UNIVERSE EXPLAINED By the 1600s, scientists could explain what the UNIVERSE looks like – but, “WHAT WERE PLANETS MADE OF & HOW IS MOTION IN THE UNIVERSE EXPLAINED?” Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei aka the “Father of Modern Observational Astronomy” aka the “Father of Modern Physics” aka the “Father of Science” aka the “Father of Modern Science” The Starry Messenger Three discoveries published in The Starry Messenger (1610): 1.) Jupiter has four moons 2.) The Sun has dark spots 3.) Earth’s moon has a rough/uneven surface HEAVENLY OBJECTS * HEAVENLY OBJECTS” were composed of material substance – not pure orbs of light! ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN, PHYSICIST & ASTRONOMER TELESCOPE 1609 – Galileo constructs his first TELESCOPE…
Galileo’s Problems with the Catholic Church… (begin in 1616 when he is told not to support Copernicus’ heliocentric theory – 1633) 1 Chronicles 16:30 – “Fear before him, all the earth: the world also shall be stable, that it be not moved.” Psalm 96:10 – “Say among the heathen that the Lord reigneth: the world also shall be established that it shall not be moved: he shall judge the people righteously.” Psalm 104:5 – “He set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved.” Ecclesiastes 1:5 – “The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.” THE CATHOLIC CHURCH ORDERED GALILEO TO ABANDON HIS IDEAS! WHY? Answer: THREATENED THE BIBLICAL CONCEPT OF THE UNIVERSE His discoveries THREATENED THE BIBLICAL CONCEPT OF THE UNIVERSE – humans were no longer at the center and God was no longer in a specific place (“out there beyond the stars)
Opposing Viewpoints Faith vs. Science
CARDINAL BELLARMINE argues that truth lies in the Holy Scriptures: “…but to want to affirm that the sun really is fixed in the center of the heavens and only revolves around itself… and that the earth… revolves… around the sun, is a very dangerous thing… by injuring our holy faith and rendering the Holy Scriptures false. …the holy Fathers… all agree in explaining literally that the sun is in the heavens and moves swiftly around the earth… now consider whether… the Church could encourage giving Scripture a sense contrary to the holy Fathers…” (read the following viewpoint and answer the question below) QUESTION QUESTION: “Why did Galileo’s ideas represent a threat to the Catholic Church?” Answer Answer: the Church taught the literal truth of the Bible – if something in the Bible could be proved false, it would shake the foundation of on which the Church was built – and its credibility!
GALILEO argues that the Church should reinterpret Scriptural truths if they conflict with scientific truths: (read the following viewpoint and answer the question below) QUESTION QUESTION: “What did Galileo suggest that his opponents should do before dismissing his ideas?” Answer Answer: He suggested that his opponents prove him wrong! “…I hold the sun to be situated motionless in the center of the revolution of the celestial orbs while the earth revolves around the sun… these men [his opponents] have resolved to fabricate [construct] a shield for their fallacies [mistakes] out of… the authority of the Bible. These they apply with little judgment to the refutation [disproving] of arguments that they do not understand and have not even listened to… before a physical proposition is condemned it must be shown to be… false.”
Isaac Newton’s View of the Universe NEWTON REBUILDING THE UNIVERSE * Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo… NEWTON improved upon & built on their work REBUILDING THE UNIVERSE! Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION * Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (published in 1687 ), Newton laid out his UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION. BIG IDEA BIG IDEA Newton taught that scientific theory should be coupled with rigorous THE BASIS OF MODERN SCIENCE experimentation – which would eventually become THE BASIS OF MODERN SCIENCE LAWS of MOTION GRAVITY …set forth LAWS of MOTION ! – including GRAVITY FUNCTIONSTHINGS * Newton describes how the Universe FUNCTIONS… how THINGS move… ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN & PHYSICIST
UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION Everyobject inthe universe attracts every otherobject GRAVITY * Every object in the universe attracts every other object by a force called GRAVITY (the degree of attraction depends on mass and distance between them) QUESTION: “Why was this theory important to scientists of the 17 th century?” Answer: MOTION If mathematically proven, the theory could explain all MOTION throughout the universe! WORLD-MACHINE CONCEPT * Newton’s WORLD-MACHINE CONCEPT created a new view of the universe! – HOW?
Up until the middle of the 17 th century – scientists believed they could answer the following questions: “…what the universe looks like.” “…HOW the universe moves.” “…what “stuff” in the universe is made of.” WHO WHAT WHO and WHAT?
As Scientists begin to figure out the universe, curiosity & innovation spread to other fields & topics… (like medicine, the human body, etc.)
Scientific Revolution: Breakthroughs in Medicine (and the human body) GALEN * GALEN – Greek (or Roman) physician/surgeon (2 nd Century A.D.) who made early contributions to the understanding of anatomy, physiology and neurology… ANIMAL DISSECTION ANATOMY * Focused on ANIMAL DISSECTION, rather than human, to formulate ideas on the human ANATOMY (teachings dominated until the Middle Ages – similar to Aristotle, Ptolemy) GALEN ON BLOOD & THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Circulatory system consisted of two separate one-way systems of distribution – NOT a single unified system of circulation. (TRADITIONAL, PRE-MODERN, “OLD VIEW”) Venous blood was generated in the liver, from where it was distributed to all organs of the body – Arterial blood originated in the heart, from where it was distributed to all organs of the body. (TRADITIONAL, PRE-MODERN, “OLD VIEW”)
Andreas Vesalius’ On the Fabric of the Human Body ACCURATE EXAMINATION OF THE ORGANS AND COMPLETE STRUCTURE OF THE BODY * Andreas Vesalius’ On the Fabric of the Human Body (published in 1543) presents an ACCURATE EXAMINATION OF THE ORGANS AND COMPLETE STRUCTURE OF THE BODY FOUNDER OF MODERN HUMAN ANATOMY * Vesalius is often referred to as the FOUNDER OF MODERN HUMAN ANATOMY! THINK THINK: “Why was Vesalius able to gain an understanding of the human anatomy where Galen was not?” Scientific Revolution: Breakthroughs in Medicine (and the human body)
William Harvey On the Motion of the Heart and Blood * William Harvey publishes On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (1628) HEART ACTS AS PUMP TO CIRCULATE BLOOD THROUGHOUT THE BODY * HEART ACTS AS PUMP TO CIRCULATE BLOOD THROUGHOUT THE BODY – the same blood flows through veins and arteries… Scientific Revolution: Breakthroughs in Medicine (and the human body) Arab medical scientists had already made these “discoveries” – it took Harvey’s findings for the world to notice! IBN AL-NAFIS REPRODUCED VIA THE FERTILIZATION OF AN EGG BY SPERM …was also the first to suggest that humans & mammals REPRODUCED VIA THE FERTILIZATION OF AN EGG BY SPERM!
Francis Bacon and… The Scientific Method MAIN IDEAREASON * MAIN IDEA: scientists came to believe that REASON is main source of ALL knowledge.. REASON * REASON is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, for establishing and verifying facts, changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on NEW information!
Francis Bacon and… The Scientific Method …It is a step-by-step, repeatable process for collecting and analyzing data and coming to new conclusions (systematic procedure). WHAT IS IT * WHAT IS IT? “If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; but if he will be content to begin with doubts, he shall end in certainties.” INDUCTIVE REASONING * Focused on the use of INDUCTIVE REASONING (“start with a specific observation and proceed to a general understanding byway of a proven hypothesis”) EXPLAINED by FRANCIS BACON (1622) Descartes DEDUCTIVE REASONING * …as opposed to Descartes’ rationalism based on DEDUCTIVE REASONING…
INDUCTIVE REASONING * INDUCTIVE REASONING … 1.) Free mind from previous opinions that might distort the truth 2.) Start with detailed facts and proceed to general principles DRIVES * Inductive reasoning DRIVES the Scientific Revolution! advance human life new discoveries * Bacon wanted science to advance human life with new discoveries (Science could benefit industry, agriculture and trade) Francis Bacon and… The Scientific Method
“How does a scientist come to a conclusion?” SCIENTIFIC PROCESS * The SCIENTIFIC PROCESS! make an observation Step 1: make an observation (observe a natural event) formulate a hypothesis Step 2: formulate a hypothesis (a theory or possible explanation for the event) test the hypothesis Step 3: test the hypothesis (perform organized experiments to test theory) change the hypothesis * Step 5: change the hypothesis (if necessary) GENERAL PRINCIPLE * analyze results from test Step 4: analyze results from test (draw conclusions)