3Objectives Connections to the last few episodes… Definition and History: GratuitousnessScripture and TraditionOther Religious TraditionsCatholic Social TeachingPracticing Gratuitousness and Transformation
12Why ‘Gratuitousness’? Latin gratuitus: Unnecessarily excessive free, without payUnnecessarily excessive“Without reason; unjustified”An unnecessary and unexpected giftFreely bestowed, obtainedCosting nothing to the recipient
13Why ‘Gratuitousness’? Latin: Gratuitus gratia (favor) ‘grace’ Greek: grace chárisLatin VulgateCháris ‘caritas’ ‘charity’‘Agape’ ‘caritasThus: gratuitousness, grace, love, and charity are deeply intertwined concepts“At the heart of gratuitousness is grace”
14Secular Treatment “Charity” – meaning narrows 1700’s: charity becomes reduced to monetary donationsAlms to the poorDonations to ‘charitable organizations’Tax deductible (1950s)Gratuitousness also monetized“Gratuity”—monetary tipReserved for the deserving
16Scripture No one biblical word Concepts grace, gift, love, charity permeate the biblical record.
17Scripture Creation: freely, out of love, each new thing “good” Abraham and Sarah: Descendants as numerous as the starsExodus: Land flowing with milk and honeySabbath and Jubilee: rest, restoration
18Scripture Incarnation Jesus’ life and actions Small, ‘insignificant’ actionsEvery time: creative, excessive, and transformative!Transform how we seeTransform how we reason— how we understand the world
19Early Church “Love one another as God has loved you” (John 13:34) Love enemiesLove gratuitouslyGive one’s coat as well as one’s cloak (Luke 6:29)Sell all one has and give it to the poor (Matt. 19:21)Pool assets (Acts 2:44)Collection for widowsSt. Paul: Greatest of three theological virtues—faith, hope, and LOVE (1 Cor. 13:13)
20Tradition St. Thomas Aquinas Charity = the central Christian virtueThe “form” or “shape” of all the virtuesChallenges us to see every aspect of the Christian life as a practice of caritas, love, gift, or gratuitousness.
26Rerum Novarum (1891) YES: Change working conditions YES: Private propertyBUT LIMITED: Right to private property limited by what one and others need.Strong emphasis on the duty of charityAll persons of good will called to give of their excess to those in need
27Quadragesimo Anno (1931) Pius XI Introduces the term ‘social charity ‘Charity must not be a mask for injustice.’
28Mater et Magistra (1961)Shift focus away from individuals toward businesses and countries“All forms of economic enterprise must be governed by the principles of social justice and charity”How?? Enabled by Christ’s gratuitous, charitable love toward us.
29Universal Destination of Goods In creating all that is, God gave all the goods of the earth to all people in order to sustain human life and well-being. For basic human needs, all persons have equal claim to the goods of creation.Ownership and private property, therefore, “presupposes these riches and resources of the visible world, riches and resources that man finds and does not create. In a sense man finds them already prepared, ready for him to discover them and to use them correctly in the productive process. In every phase of the development of his work, man comes up against the leading role of the gift made by "nature", that is to say, in the final analysis, by the Creator. At the beginning of man's work is the mystery of creation” (Pope John Paul II, Laborem Exercens §12).
30Post-VCII Too many examples to count FRAMEWORK for the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church (2004)Opening chapter: “God’s Plan of Love for Humanity” from creation to the end of time.Final chapter: “Building a Civilization of Love”
31Benedict XVI Love/charity/gratuitousnes s = the hallmark BXVI’s papacy 2009: names the principle of gratuitousness“Charity is at the heart of the Church’s social doctrine.”Because charity is the inner dynamic of love among Persons of the Trinity.
32Benedict XVI“Economic, social, and political development, if it is to be authentically human, needs to make room for the principle of gratuitousness as an expression of fraternity.”The principle of gratuitousness ought to shape economic, social, and political practices:“…in commercial relationships the principle of gratuitiousness and the logic of gift as an expression of fraternity can and must find their place within normal economic activity. This is a human demand at the present time, but it is also demanded by economic logic. It is a demand of both charity and of truth.”
33Benedict XVIIn addition to contracts, just laws, and forms of redistribution via politics, economics needs “works redolent of the spirit of gift. The economy in the global era seems to privilege the former logic, that of contractual exchange, but directly or indirectly it also demonstrates its need for the other two: political logic, and the logic of the unconditional gift.”Catholic institutions should witness to the wider culture what the logic of gift might look like within contemporary market practices.
34Catholic Health Care: Grounded in the Logic of Gift