Presentation on theme: "By: Ji-yeon, Priyanka, Calvin. Significant People Martin Luther – initiated Protestant Reformation. John Calvin – influential pastor during Protestant."— Presentation transcript:
By: Ji-yeon, Priyanka, Calvin
Significant People Martin Luther – initiated Protestant Reformation. John Calvin – influential pastor during Protestant Reformation. Founded Calvinism. King Henry VIII – separated English Church from Roman Church and made himself head of English Church. King Edward VI – Under his rule, Protestant Christianity becomes main religion in England. John Knox – a leader of the Protestant Reformation. Founded the Presbyterian Church.
Significant Events Peace of Westphalia – ended the European Religious wars. European religious wars – series of wars in Europe following Protestant Reformation. The 95 Theses – Martin Luther nailed it and it began the Protestant Reformation. The ruins of Glastonbury Abbey after the Dissolution of Monasteries during King Henry VIII’s rule.
Europe After the Reformation Protestant Christianity increased greatly after the Protestant Reformation.
Change Over Time The head of the Roman Catholic Church was the pope, whom was thought to be flawless and he had the same authority as the religious scriptures. With Protestant Reformation there were many changes. 1. Sola Scriptura – The meaning is “by scripture alone”. Unlike the Roman Catholic Church, it means that only the scripture has authority of the people. 2. Sola Fide – The meaning is “by faith alone”. It means that the people are saved by God through faith alone and nothing else. 3. Sola Gratia – The meaning is “by grace alone”. It means that the people are saved only through God and no one else. 4. Priesthood of all believers – it means that the people have an access to God through themselves. 5. Protestant Christianity abolished the authority of the Pope, merit of good works, indulgences, mediation of Mary and the Saints, all the sacraments excluding Baptism and the Lord’s Supper because they were practiced by Christ, doctrine of transubstantiation, mass as a sacrifice, purgatory, prayers for the dead, and confessions to a priest.
Change Over Time (continued) The Protestant Reformation begins 1521 – King Henry VIII, split Roman Catholic Church from England and became the Head of English Church. 1530 – The Lutheran Church branches off of Protestant Christianity (founded by Martin Luther). King Edward VI becomes King of England. Protestant Christianity becomes the main religion. 1550’s – Calvinism is created and branching off of Protestant Christianity, dominates in Europe. 1553 – Mary I becomes Queen of England. England returns to Roman Catholicism and Protestants are persecuted and burned at the stake. 1563 – The Thirty-nine Articles are written and the Anglican Church branches off of Protestant Christianity. 1572 – The Presbyterian Church branches off of Protestant Christianity (founded by John Knox, after disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and the church government).
Branches of Protestant Christianity
Chronology Protestantism was first established as a branch of Christianity during the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolt. It began in 1517 when Martin Luther published the Ninety-Five Theses and ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia. October 31, 1517: Protestant Reformation begins in Wittenberg where Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to the door of the Castle Church. The theses criticized the Church and the Pope and opened the doors for debate. The Protestant Reformation broke power of Catholic Church and split Europe into 2 groups: the Catholics and the Protestants. 1520: Luther publishes 3 pamphlets: “Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation”, “Babylonian Captivity of the Church”, and “Freedom of a Christian”. Followers of Luther were known as Lutherans. January 3, 1521: Luther is officially excommunicated (suspended from religious community). 1521: Henry VIII, a Catholic King, defends the papacy against Luther in a book called The Defense of the Seven Sacraments. 1521: Diet of Worms (Edict of Worms), which was an assembly of the Roman Empire decreed Luther as an outlaw religiously and secularly. : (German Peasants’ War) German peasants revolt partly because of the Protestant Reformation.
Chronology (continued) 1529: Diet of Speyer reaffirms edict of the Diet of Worms. 1531: The Smalkaldic League, an offensive and defensive alliance, is concluded between Protestant princes and cities. 1534: John Calvin converts to Protestantism and becomes a highly influential leader in Protestant Reformation. Followers were called Calvinists. 1535: Protestant and Catholic armies crush the radicals in Munster. 1541: John Calvin publishes “Institutes of the Christian Religion,” a summary of Christian teachings. 1547: Collapse of Smalkaldic League. 1550’s: Calvinism takes over as the dominant Protestant religion in Europe 1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre in which French Protestants were the target. 1607: First successful English Protestant colony in Virginia (New World). 1618: Thirty Year War begins. It was initially fought because of the religious conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics. 1648: End of Thirty Year War. The Treaty of Westphalia ends European religious wars.
Comparisons Protestants are a branch off of Christianity, so they are monotheistic (belief in one god), just like other monotheistic religions such as Judaism and Islam. In contrast, Protestantism is different from polytheistic (belief in multiple gods) religions such as the religions of early Greek and Egypt empires. Protestantism originated in Germany. During the Protestant Reformation, Protestantism spread to other parts of Europe because of influential leaders such as Martin Luther and John Calvin and the printing press’s ability to copy and spread information quickly to multiple areas. The pilgrims traveled to America so they could practice their Protestant faith in 17 th century and avoid being forced to practice a certain religion by the Church; however, earlier in the 16 th century, people such as Luther in Germany and Europe were excommunicated because of Protestant faith. Protestantism was able to grow in different ways as well. In Europe the idea that family was fundamental unit fostered religous belief. In Asia, missionaries that helped establish schools and clinics were able to spread Protestantism.
Comparisons (continued) British Baptists played a major role by converting people in Central Africa to Protestantism by providing them with a basic education and minimal welfare services. Movement of Protestantism was strongest in the Northern Europe. The southern countries of Spain and Italy remained mainly Catholic. Other branches of Protestantism emerged during the Reformation period. For example Calvinism was mainly followed in Switzerland, France, and the Netherlands. Lutheranism was quickly followed in Denmark. In England, Protestantism took many forms because of churches of Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism all received popular support. Both Protestantism and Catholicism were spread by European merchants, soldiers, and missionaries around the world, especially in the Americas. -Protestantism came to each region in a different way. In Europe the idea of humanism gave rise to the Protetsant Reformation. In Asia, Protestantism was introduced by missionaries. In North America, Protestantism came with the Puritans.
Europe PIRATES Politics In England, King Henry the VIII formed the Reformation Parliament. This parliament passed legislative laws such as the “Acts of Supremacy” Queen Elizabeth I passed “The Act of Supremacy of 1559” the “Act of Uniformity. This created unity between Catholics and Protestants. Intelligence Lorenzo Valla, who wanted to get rid of the Roman Catholic Church’s chokehold had inspired people to learn the original language of the Bible and allowed them to read and interpret the Bible themselves. This spurred people like Martin Luther and John Calvin to began their Protestantism movement.
Europe PIRATES (continued) Technology The printing press was one of the major pieces of technology that helped Martin Luther advance his ideals to the general public through printing pamphlets. With the recently- invented printing press, he was able to print his 95 Theses against the abuses of indulgences and gained unprecedented written communication. Society 1520s- In Germany, the idea that the family was the fundamental unit that fostered both religious belief and society grew by the 1520s. The vision of the Protestant farmers was that the family was a patriarchal family, but the mother was still in charge of the nurture and education of her child. Both of the parents had to teach their children Christian beliefs and practices. Economy A German sociologist, economist and politician named Max Weber wrote about the relationship between the Protestant ethic and the development of capitalism. Certain branches of Protestantism had supported activities dedicated to economic gain because they were endowed with moral and spiritual significance. Protestantism put a “vocation” of God on occupation or trade. This impacted the development of economic systems all around Europe.
Asia PIRATES Politics 19 th Century - Christianity came to China in the early 19 th century during the Qing dynasty from Robert Morrison of the London Missionary Society who went to Macau. Western powers had forced the Chinese government to allow in the missionaries. 1600s - One of the commanders of the Japanese invasions of Korea, Konishi Yukinaga, was the first Christian in Korea. He brought Julia Ota, a Korean girl, back with him to Japan and she became the first Korean Christian. Later a Korean diplomat Yi Gwang Jeong returned from Beijing carrying several theological books written by Matteo Ricci, a missionary to China. Intelligence The Protestant Christianity movement in China expanded the knowledge of history and medicine in the country. They established and developed schools where they taught the latest techniques in medicine. They were the first school system to offer education to the poor boys and girls, who before had no hope of learning at school. The first Protestant in Japan, Dr. James Hepburn founded the Hepburn School (Meiji Gakuin University), wrote an English- Japanese dictionary and contributed to the translation of the Protestant Bible in Japanese.
Asia PIRATES (continued) Art & Architecture In Kerala, India, the church architectures have been influenced by other nations and cultures like the Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English. There are three striking things about the style of these churches: (1) the open-air granite cross, (2) a flag-staff made from Kerala’s famed teak wood and (3) a lampstand. Most protestant cathedrals in India conform to the architectural style of Neo-Gothic and Gothic Revival. French and Danish art can be seen as influences on Christian art in India. Society Protestant Christians in China did many things including; establishing clinics and hospitals, providing proper training for nurses, opening modern schools, working to abolish foot binding, and improve treatment of servants. They launched charities and fed the poor. They also provided treatment to the people who were addicted to opium because of opium trade. 19 th century - Aggression created by the Christians under British rule of India caused resentment from the Hindus and the Muslims in the 19 th century who felt that their religions and cultures were being attacked.
North America PIRATES Pirates late 1600s- The Puritans came to North America and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 with 400 settlers. They hoped that this new land would be the “redeemer nation.” The tensions between the Puritans and the Native Americans eventually led to King Phillip’s War of when American soldiers went to fight against the King and his men, they revised the Book of Common Prayer to conform of political realities. To go against the King was to go against the Anglican Church of England and this was considered treason and blasphemy. Intelligence Mainline Protestant Christianity was open to new ideas, new standards of morality and societal changes without abandoning the foundation of Protestant Christianity. It is moderate and is influenced by higher criticism, which what scholars use to separate the Bible’s earliest historical parts and intentional distortions.
North America PIRATES (continued) Society 1700s- The Great Awakenings were religious revivals in American religious history. The First Awakening began in 1725 and ended in This was basically a revival brought from evangelical Protestant ministers who wanted to increase the interest in religion and it led to the formation of new religious movements and denominations. During the Salem Witch Trials, the Puritans were in power of the colony of Massachusetts. While it was not a theocracy, many of the actions of the people in Massachusetts related to their learnings as Puritans. Cotton Mather, a Puritan minister at the time, describe a strange behavior shown by the four children of the mason John Goodwin and that came from witchcraft from an Irish washerwoman, Mary Glover, who was Catholic.
Protestant Christianity Today In 2005, there were an estimated 800 million Protestant Christians in the world. Now the Protestant religion is split up into many denominations like Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists and the Congregationalists. Protestant Christianity also branched out into the fundamentalists. In the 21 st century, about 27% of the population in the United States and Russia are fundamentalists. Protestantism has also been expanding into areas like Latin America, where Catholicism is more prominent in the area. In the end, the growth of Protestantism is still high. It had impacted religious practices all across the world, especially in countries in Latin America, who are converting to Protestantism. In China, Protestant Christianity has improved their economy with the practice of the Protestant Ethics.